Security researchers discovered that subscriber information for Adobe’s Creative Cloud was exposed to the public due to an unencrypted database cache. Although the database storing customer information was secured, the cache of the database was not, revealing customer information to anyone. The information did not consist of any financial information or passwords. However, the information that was in the cache could still be useful to attackers for launching spear-phishing campaigns or other kinds of fraudulent activity.

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Principles of Asymmetric Cryptography In order to overcome these drawbacks, Diffie, Hellman and Merkle had a revolutionary proposal based on the following idea: It is not necessary that the key possessed by the person who encrypts the message (that’s Alice in our example) is secret. The crucial part is that Bob, the receiver, can only decrypt using a secret key. In order to realize such a system, Bob publishes a public encryption key which is known to everyone. Bob also has a matching secret key, which is used for decryption.


Another term for round key is subkey. First, note that the DES input key is often stated as 64-bit, where every eighth bit is used as an odd parity bit over the preceding seven bits. It is not quite clear why DES was specified that way. In any case, the eight parity bits are not actual key bits and do not increase the security. DES is a 56-bit cipher, not a 64-bit one.

Publish/Subscribe systems; establish a connection between subscribers (consumers) and publishers (producers) of events, behaving as a mediator between subscribers and publishers. So core functionality of this system is to match the events with the subscriptions and send these events to subscribers whose subscriptions are related to the events. Publish/Subscribe system is used in many application domains, ranging from smart grid to transportations. But, traditional Publish/Subscribe systems are unable to handle these emerging IoT (Internet of Things) applications due to its lack of QoS capability. To meet the requirements for QoS in IoT, modification in message broker is done which introduces the ability to schedule the computations resources. We propose two techniques of resource selection that makes better resource utilization. Performance of the system is measured by taking number of failures as a parameter. Experimental result shows that, performing good resource selection decreases the number of failures by 3%.


We present a designated-verifier non-interactive zero-knowledge argument system for QMA with multi-theorem security under the Learning with Errors Assumption. All previous such protocols for QMA are only single-theorem secure. We also relax the setup assumption required in previous works.

Interesting research: Abdul Serwadda, Vir V. Phoha, Zibo Wang, Rajesh Kumar, and Diksha Shukla, "Robotic Robbery on the Touch Screen, " ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, May 2020. Johnson) Date: Sat, 01 Jan 2020 09: 37: 18 -0600 Subject: Talking Back to Power: China's 'Haves' Stir the 'Have Nots' to Violence Message-ID. The difficulty of a computation can be useful: modern protocols for encrypting messages (for example, RSA) depend on functions that are known to all, but whose inverses are known only to a chosen few, and would. Friday Squid Blogging: The Story of Inventing the SQUID. Subsequently, a feasible implementation scheme via an asymmetric key algorithm was invented by another staff member Clifford Cocks, a mathematics. DDoS, man-in-themiddle, DNS poisoning) 5 6.3 Manage network access controls 6 6.4 Manage network security 5. The main technical idea in our scheme is that we transmit the images of torsion bases under the isogeny in order to allow. The private key is kept private and is known only by the owner (receiver). The attack exposes a weakness in the company's new Creative Cloud subscription model, which omits the 'bits-in-a-box. If f(n) is computable in polynomial time then it can be used as the public rule and the invertible decomposition provides a private key in f(n) based public key infrastructure. Last year, scientists from Google and NASA suggested that D-Wave quantum technology could provide computing million times faster than current conventional technology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.


It looks as though public-key schemes can provide all functions required by modern security protocols

Internet Games-based electronic money could be used to transfer large amount of virtual money across individuals and cash them out into real money. However especially following Snowden's (2021) revelations, these kinds of games have been infiltrated by the NSA and GCHQ in search of terrorist activity (Leapman, 2007). Also, individuals playing these games are required to become acquainted with the game rules and also how to use the virtual money. For instance they need to know who is behind the character and where the money is sent to. Another disadvantage is that the type of money is of course tied to the success of the game and its future development.

The TinySSH server is vastly less difficult to configure than a full implementation of OpenSSH sshd. The server's author claims that "TinySSH can't be misconfigured"; the same cannot be said for sshd. Ease of administration is a factor, especially in a rollout to many servers.


We introduce the Euclidean algorithm, Euler’s phi function as well as Fermat’s Little Theorem and Euler’s theorem. All are important for asymmetric algorithms, especially for understanding the RSA crypto scheme.

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Please note that when decrypting ciphertexts, the last subkey is XORed first with the ciphertext. Therefore, it is required to recursively derive all subkeys first and then start with the decryption of a ciphertext and the on-the-fly generation of subkeys. As a result of this overhead, the decryption of a ciphertext is always slightly slower than the encryption of a plaintext when the on-the-fly generation of subkeys is used.


Balanced graph partition is a type of graph partitioning problem that divides the given graph into components, such that the components are of about the same size and there are few connections between the components. The existing approaches partition the graph initially in a random manner which has a very high impact on determining the final quality of the solution. Recently, Multilevel Partitioning methods are proven to be faster among other approaches. This paper proposes a multilevel hybrid algorithm for balanced graph partitioning. Here graph is initially partitioned using Balanced Big method in order to improve the initial solution quality. Further, the quality of the obtained solution is improved using local search refinement procedure. The experimental results indicate that the relatively good initial partitions, when subjected to local search techniques like tabu search and hill climbing, results in better solutions. The experimental results also indicate that for the proposed approach, when the number of partitions increase (are high), the quality of the solution is better than the currently available solutions reported in the existing approaches.

DES was the dominant symmetric encryption algorithm from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s. Since 56-bit keys are no longer secure, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was created. Standard DES with 56-bit key length can be broken relatively easily nowadays through an exhaustive key search. DES is quite robust against known analytical attacks: In practice it is very difficult to break the cipher with differential or linear cryptanalysis. DES is reasonably efficient in software and very fast and small in hardware. By encrypting with DES three times in a row, triple DES (3DES) is created, against which no practical attack is currently known. The “default” symmetric cipher is nowadays often AES. In addition, the other four AES finalist ciphers all seem very secure and efficient. Since about 2005 several proposals for lightweight ciphers have been made. They are suited for resource-constrained applications.


Proceedings of The International Conference on

Cholestasis is defined as the decrease or suppression of bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile at any level of the excretory pathway, from the hepatocyte canalicular membrane to the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. Cholestasis leads to the retention of the major constituents of bile, bilirubin, and bile acids, in blood. By convention, cholestasis is chronic when it lasts more than 6 months. Prevalence of cholestasis is not significantly different between males and females. Nevertheless, women are at lighter risk of developing drug-induced cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Despite that, cholestasis may affect people of every age group, newborns and infants are more prone due to the immaturity of the liver.

A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of a large number of tiny devices called sensor nodes, which are usually deployed randomly over a wide area in order to sense and monitor various physical phenomena related parameters including environmental conditions at various locations. The WSN nodes communicate with each other. WSN devices have various resource constraints such as less memory, low clock speed, finite battery energy, and limited computational power. It may not be feasible to replace the batteries in the WSN nodes. As all the nodes are battery operated it is necessary to conserve the limited battery energy so that the lifetime of the network can be extended. Network lifetime, energy efficiency, load balancing and more over scalability are some key requirements of WSN applications. This work presents a multi level hierarchical routing protocol, which is based on the LEACH protocol. This protocol improves both the energy efficiency and the lifetime of the network. Two-level LEACH (TL-LEACH), Three-level LEACH (3L-LEACH) and Four-level LEACH (4L-LEACH) have been presented. NS-3 simulation platform has been used to carry out performance analysis of these hierarchical routing protocols.


Quantum-resistant algorithms are implemented on existing platforms and derive their security through mathematical complexity. These algorithms used in cryptographic protocols provide the means for assuring the confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of a transmission—even against a potential future quantum computer. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is presently conducting a rigorous selection process to identify quantum-resistant (or post-quantum) algorithms for standardization1. Once NIST completes its selection process, NSA will issue updated guidance through CNSSP-15.

In this paper, we are discussing about cluster growth along with evolution strategy for evolvable hardware. In today's world, need of optimization of circuits based on certain constraints is increasing as th e number gates on an IC (Integrated Circuits) is increasing. Some of these constraints are feasibility of circuit, cost, delay, power, area of the chip etc. So for this purpose we need to find such efficient optimization techniques that can be implemented using software programming to obtain the hardware circuit.


However, a cryptosystem where the key bits only occur in linear relationships makes a highly insecure cipher

The AES key schedule is word-oriented, where 1 word = 32 bits. Subkeys are stored in a key expansion array W that consists of words. There are different key schedules for the three different AES key sizes of 128, 192 and 256 bit, which are all fairly similar. We introduce the three key schedules in the following.

To our knowledge this is the first such example for a public-key signature scheme

In the cholestasis, the increase of hydrophobic BA produces the cytolysis of plasmatic membrane. In normal individuals, the UDCA represents not more than 4% of the complete endogenous BA reserve.


The MixColumn transformation of AES consists of a matrix–vector multiplication in the field GF(28 ) with P(x) = x8 + x4 + x3 + x + 1. Let b = (b7 x7 +. + b0 ) be one of the (four) input bytes to the vector–matrix multiplication. Each input byte is multiplied with the constants 01, 02 and 03. Your task is to provide exact equations for computing those three constant multiplications.

We assess its concrete time/quality performance with extensive simulations and experiments. As a consequence, we update the extrapolation of the crossover rank between a square-root cost estimate for quantum enumeration using our algorithm and the Core-SVP cost estimate for quantum sieving to 547.


Toward its practical realization, tremendous progress has been made during the past decades. Metropolitan QKD networks have been successfully deployed and is going to be a continental scale. To provide information theoretically secure keys to real applications securely and seamlessly, an efficient key management system and application program interfaces have been developed. For the QKD device itself, high-speed and stable operation is critical. By employing the ultrafast optical communication devices, high-speed QKD systems stably operated at GHz-clock frequency is realized in the installed fiber networks.

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Discovering a service over the web that meets the desired functionalities is still one of the most challenging tasks in the area of Service Oriented Computing. Lack of semantic information in the web services profiles poses a restriction in the automated discovery of services. Irrelevant and huge number of services returned by the UDDI and lack of standard mechanisms are the main problems faced by the users today during service discovery. In this paper, we propose a Web service discovery approach independent of the description model that tries to manage with the heterogeneity found in semantic service description frameworks. This proposed approach uses the principals from text mining, measures of semantic relatedness and information retrieval where the semantic information of the services is integrated with the syntactic service profiles to give hybrid service vectors. Empirical evaluation of the proposed approach implemented on OWL-X services has been presented to show the feasibility of the approach. Experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is able to discover better semantic relationship between services, therefore, more relevant results are ensured during discovery.


IT 223 Final Review

Public key cryptosystem which was introduced at Eurocrypt in 1996 and proposed by Jacques Patarin following the idea of the Matsumoto and Imai system. Based on polynomials over finite fields of different size to disguise the relationship between the private key and public key.

The number, position, and orientation of the hydroxy groups of the BA impact directly on the hydrophobicity and detergency property and the relationship to the toxicity. In the case of BA with hydroxy groups in 3-α position, the higher the number of hydroxy groups, less hydrophobicity and lower detergency and, as a result, lower toxicity.


The need for identification and authentication of an entity started before computers exist. Certificates signed by trusted authorities were used by governments to monitor the activity of the society, to enable law and order. Certificates used to authenticate entities were and are part of business infrastructure. The procedures used to authenticate an entity were and are defined by societies. A newborn child does not need a certificate to be born, obviously when the child is born at home. Moreover, a newborn may not have a certificate with identifying details, including identifying number, without enforcing society’s regulations. Some societies pay parents of newborns when they register the child, an attractive payment that almost ensures that newborn will be registered.

Efficient for software-optimized stream ciphers means that they need fewer processor instructions (or processor cycles) to encrypt one bit of plaintext. For hardware-optimized stream ciphers, efficient means they need fewer gates (or smaller chip area) than a block cipher for encrypting at the same data rate. However, modern block ciphers such as AES are also very efficient in software. Moreover, for hardware, there are also highly efficient block ciphers, such as PRESENT, which are as efficient as very compact stream ciphers.


A recent survey on the specific area of provable public-key encryption is given in

Note that there are some known weaknesses in RC4, even though it is still secure in practice if it is used correctly . The SEAL cipher, on the other hand, is patented. In the case of hardware-oriented ciphers, there is a wealth of LFSR-based algorithms. Many proposed ciphers have been broken; see references [8, 85] for an introduction. Among the best-studied ones are the A5/1 and A5/2 algorithms which are used in GSM mobile networks for voice encryption between cell phones and base stations. A5/1, which is the cipher used in most industrialized nations, had originally been kept secret but was reverse-engineered and published on the Internet in 1998. The cipher is borderline secure today , whereas the weaker A5/2 has much more serious flaws . Neither of the two ciphers is recommended based on today’s understanding of cryptanalysis. For 3GPP mobile communication, a different cipher A5/3 (also named KASUMI) is used, but it is a block cipher.

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Cloud computing is one of the emerging technologies with its ease of access and diverse applicability, letting customers attracted to it and thus posing many challenging issues that need to overcome in this field. Since the evolution of cloud computing: Load balancing, power constrains, program offloading, cost modelling and security issues are the popular research topic in this field. Deploying real cloud for testing or for commercial use is very costly. Cloud simulator helps to model various kinds of cloud application by creating Data Centre, Virtual Machine and many Utilities which can be added to configure it, thus making it very easy to analyse. Till now, many cloud simulators have been proposed and also available to use. These simulators are built for specific purpose, and have varying features in each of them.


Image segmentation is one of major image processing activity used to identify a specific pixel area over the image. In this presented, an improved segmented approach is presented to recognize the object in a scene or image. Such kind of segmentation is helpful to identify the component object in a scene or the image. The presented work is based on the Mathematical analysis to identify the object position in the Scene. Once the object frame will be identified, the next work is to separate the object area from the background and in the final stage the edge detection will be implemented to highlight the object. In this paper, the basic segmentation approaches are defined along with the proposed algorithmic approach to perform the object detection. The work is here been defined for the hand object detection.

It is aimed at people who are using cryptography in higher-level security systems to implement database encryption, secure sharing, end-to-end encryption in various schemes, and should understand how it works, how it fails and how it is attacked. It is not a list of notable / important / historically important papers (although many of them are here). It is not aimed at academics (who have better grasp of what they need anyway), nor it is aimed for systematic study of wanna-be cryptographers (who better follow structured approach under professional guidance).


There is a perception that members of Al Qaeda communicate by sending encrypted messages like this. Today, the encryption is not so widespread as before, because intelligence services have developed strong systems for decoding the encryption. Encryption and encrypted messages are still present on various internet forums, where terrorist organizations often leave their messages in the form of encrypted text messages to terrorist cells, which they can then publicly read. Identification of users that use this kind of encrypted communication for terrorist purposes on some internet forums is almost impossible.

In a company, all files which are sent on the network are automatically encrypted by using AES-128 in CBC mode. A fixed key is used, and the IV is changed once per day. The network encryption is file-based, so that the IV is used at the beginning of every file. You managed to spy out the fixed AES-128 key, but do not know the recent IV. Today, you were able to eavesdrop two different files, one with unidentified content and one which is known to be an automatically generated temporary file and only contains the value 0xFF.


With the increasing deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) there has been a demand for power efficient, reliable, Wireless network based Distributed Computing system (WDC). The fading nature of the wireless channel offer several challenges to WDC over traditional distributed computing system. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based wireless communication systems offer several advantages and are increasingly replacing single carrier communication systems. In this paper we propose resource allocation for OFDMA based wireless distributed computing system. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using computer simulation.

RSA (cryptosystem) and similar block ciphers

Definition 5/3.1 Key whitening for block ciphers Encryption: y = ek,k1 ,k2 (x) = ek (x ⊕ k1 ) ⊕ k2 −1 Decryption: x = e−1 k,k1 ,k2 (x) = ek (y ⊕ k2 ) ⊕ k1 It is important to stress that key whitening does not strengthen block ciphers against most analytical attacks such as linear and differential cryptanalysis. This is in contrast to multiple encryption, which often also increases the resistance to analytical attacks. Hence, key whitening is not a “cure” for inherently weak ciphers. Its main application is ciphers that are relatively strong against analytical attacks but possess too short a key space. The prime example of such a cipher is DES. A variant of DES which uses key whitening is DESX. In the case of DESX, the key k2 is derived from k and k1. Please note that most modern block ciphers such as AES already apply key whitening internally by adding a subkey prior to the first round and after the last round. Let’s now discuss the security of key whitening. A na¨ıve brute-force attack against the scheme requires 2κ +2n search steps, where κ is the bit length of the key and n the block size.

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The straightforward ECB mode has security weaknesses, independent of the underlying block cipher. The counter mode allows parallelization of encryption and is thus suited for highspeed implementations. Double encryption with a given block cipher only marginally improves the resistance against brute-force attacks. Triple encryption with a given block cipher roughly doubles the key length. Triple DES (3DES) has an effective key length of 112 bits. Key whitening enlarges the DES key length without much computational overhead.


Moreover, addition modulo 2 is equal to bitwise XOR. Let’s have a look at an example in the field GF(28 ) which is used in AES: Example 4/5.

Mobile ad hoc networking enables communication in mobile wireless network by incorporating routing functionality into mobile nodes. In Mobile ad hoc network, nodes can formulates multi-hop dynamic topology which is sometimes rapidly changing and likely composed of bandwidth-constrained and variable capacity wireless links. Over such type of network choice of appropriate routing protocol that could offer efficient communication is obligatory. To elucidate this issue, paper presents the simulation analysis to investigate the performance of selected proactive and reactive routing protocols in a dynamic ad hoc environment considering UDP traffic. Paper also examines the impact of various conditions triggered due to node mobility.


Unstructured form of text documents has seen a huge growth. Feature selection methods are important for the preprocessing of such text documents for dynamic text classification. Appropriate and useful features are focused during feature selection. This can decrease the cost involved while huge amount of data is dispensed out and will also amplify the next textual classifying work. This paper devised a novel geometric optimization method labeling for textual classification. An experimental study on the said geometric feature optimization method is conducted using divergent sizes of text data sets. Experimentally it is shown that how effective this method and how it is better than the tradition methods.

Public-key cryptosystems form a critical aspect of our secrecy. The ability to establish private communications over a public (moved here) medium is exercised billions of times per day. Should technology arise that unmasks this private discourse, the consequences could be incalculable.


A new approach towards time frequency localization has been proposed in this paper. This scheme is based on a local variance factor. The framework of the approach has been demonstrated mathematically. The consistency of approach and the resulting methodology have been empirically verified.

Jaundice is the clinical expression of bilirubin retention. Excretion of conjugated bilirubin is the rate-limiting step of bilirubin clearance. During cholestasis, conjugation of bilirubin continues but the excretion is significantly reduced. Jaundice is observed by scleral icterus at a concentration as low as 2 mg/dL accompanied by dark urine. The concentration of conjugated bilirubin in blood depends on its production rate and excretion pathways, as well as cholestasis degree. Non conjugated bilirubin is also increased in patients with cholestasis. The magnitude of the increase in serum bilirubin concentration does not correlated with the type or severity of cholestasis. Pruritus is a frequent clinical manifestation of cholestasis, which has been long associated with increased serum bile acids. However, its origin is multifactorial and diverse studies show that not only bile acids but also lysophosphatidic acid, and bilirubin are potential mediators of cholestatic itch . Retention of bile acids and their conjugated salts results in biological membrane injury, particularly in the liver due to their detergent properties.


The United States has gone through a few modifications—or in some cases, complete overhauls—of its paper and coin money. Many of the changes had to do with making the currency more secure and harder to replicate. The use of special dyes, watermarks, and holographic images when the dollars are held at a specific angle, all touted as advanced anticounterfeiting strategies.

The inherent difficulty of maintaining stateful environments over long periods of time gave rise to the paradigm of serverless computing, where mostly-stateless components are deployed on demand to handle computation tasks, and are teared down once their task is complete. Serverless architecture could offer the added benefit of improved resistance to targeted denial-of-service attacks, by hiding from the attacker the physical machines involved in the protocol until after they complete their work. Realizing such protection, however, requires that the protocol only uses stateless parties, where each party sends only one message and never needs to speaks again. Perhaps the most famous example of this style of protocols is the Nakamoto consensus protocol used in Bitcoin: A peer can win the right to produce the next block by running a local lottery (mining), all while staying covert. Once the right has been won, it is executed by sending a single message.


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Researchers believe that it takes existing computers a long time to factorize big numbers, partly because no one has yet discovered how to do it quickly. But quantum computers could factorize a large number exponentially faster than any conventional computer, and this nullifies RSA’s reliance on factoring being difficult.

Although its biosynthesis is not completely dilucidated, it is well known that different mutations in some genes which codify for proteins within its biosynthetic pathway have been identified. These mutations define the primary CoQ10 deficiencies [34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40]. At this time, from the 13 known CoQ genes direct or indirect related to CoQ biosynthesis, it is recognize that eight of them can cause CoQ10 deficiency and disease . Primary CoQ10 deficiencies are a group of rare diseases of clinically heterogeneous appearance suggesting an autosomal recessive inheritance, because relatives are often affected, whereas parents are characteristically unaffected. The four most frequent clinical phenotypes associated with primary CoQ10 deficiencies are encephalomiophaty, cerebellar ataxia, multisystemic infantile form, and glomerulophaty and myophaty, all of them having a muscular and neurologic compromise . Patients affected with primary CoQ10 deficiency, although its clinical severity, highly respond to CoQ10 supplementation being most effective the sooner the treatment begins [35, 42].


It can, for instance, be generated by Alice and sent to Bob together with the first ciphertext block. The counter CT R can either be a regular integer counter or a slightly more complex function such as a maximum-length LFSR. One might wonder why so many modes are needed. One attractive feature of the Counter mode is that it can be parallelized because, unlike the OFB or CFB mode, it does not require any feedback. For instance, we can have two block cipher engines running in parallel, where the first block cipher encrypts the counter value CT R1 and the other CT R2 at the same time. When the two block cipher engines are finished, the first engine encrypts the value CT R3 and the other one CT R4, and so on. This scheme would allow us to encrypt at twice the data rate of a single implementation. Of course, we can have more than two block ciphers running in parallel, increasing the speed-up proportionally.

Standardize one or more quantum-resistant public-key cryptographic algorithms

An anonymous reader writes: Google is working on a new operating system dubbed Fuchsia OS for smartphones, computers, and various other devices. The new operating system was spotted in the Git repository, where the description reads: "Pick + Purple == Fuchsia (a new Operating System). Hacker News reports that Travis Geiselbrech, who worked on NewOS, BeOS, Danger, Palm's webOS and iOS, and Brian Swetland, who also worked on BeOS and Android will be involved in this project.


In this paper, the trace transform based affine invariant features are applied for signature verification. The trace and diametric functional are suitably chosen to derive a set of circus functions from each signature image. The affine relationships of intra-class and inter-class circus functions are converted to a simple scale and shift correspondence through normalization. The normalized associated circus functions are to be used as the features for signature verification. The similarity measures for same-writer and different-writer pairs are used in deciding the threshold value. The proposed system is found to be effective for signature verification over a large unconstrained signature database.

True Random Number Generators (TRNG) True random number generators (TRNGs) are characterized by the fact that their output cannot be reproduced. For instance, if we flip a coin 100 times and record the resulting sequence of 100 bits, it will be virtually impossible for anyone on Earth to generate the same 100 bit sequence. The chance of success is 1/2100, which is an extremely small probability. TRNGs are based on physical processes. Examples include coin flipping, rolling of dice, semiconductor noise, clock jitter in digital circuits and radioactive decay. In cryptography, TRNGs are often needed for generating session keys, which are then distributed between Alice and Bob, and for other purposes.


Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) is used in relational data mining to discover rules in first order logic, given data in multiple relations. This form of data mining has to be distinguished from market basket analysis where the data comes from a single relational table. Although ILP addresses the problem of dealing with data from multiple relational tables, the fact remains that the efficiency of inferring rules in first order logic is significantly less than that of many-sorted logic. Further, many sorted logic is a closer reflection of the real world of objects that belong to sorts, in the presence of a sort hierarchy. We propose a new approach to ILP using many-sorted logic that is more computationally efficient than the approach based on unsorted first order logic.

In addition to the three families above, there have been proposals for several other public-key schemes

However, it turns out that finding the gcd is not the main application of the Euclidean algorithm. An extension of the algorithm allows us to compute modular inverses, which is of major importance in public-key cryptography. In addition to computing the gcd, the extended Euclidean algorithm (EEA) computes a linear combination of the form: gcd(r0, r1 ) = s · r0 + t · r1 where s and t are integer coefficients. This equation is often referred to as Diophantine equation. The question now is: how do we compute the two coefficients s and t? The idea behind the algorithm is that we execute the standard Euclidean algorithm, but we express the current remainder ri in every iteration as a linear combination of the form (6/1) ri = s i r 0 + t i r 1. If we succeed with this, we end up in the last iteration with the equation: rl = gcd(r0, r1 ) = sl r0 + tl r1 = sr0 + tr1. This means that the last coefficient sl is the coefficient s in Eq. (6/1) we are looking for, and also tl = t. Let’s look at an example.


Let’s assume the input to the Byte Substitution layer is (C2,C2 ,C2) in hexadecimal notation. The output state is then (25, 25, 25). Mathematical description of the S-Box For readers who are interested in how the S-Box entries are constructed, a more detailed description now follows. This description, however, is not necessary for a basic understanding of AES, and the remainder of this subsection can be skipped without problem. Unlike the DES SBoxes, which are essentially random tables that fulfill certain properties, the AES S-Boxes have a strong algebraic structure.

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It additionally discusses some quantum resistant cryptosystems to exchange the IFP, DLP and ECDLP based mostly cryptosystems. Organizations interested in maintaining their current embedded cryptographic choices but want to immediately future-proof against quantum attacks are embracing our Quantum Safe Hybrid (QSH) approach. Proceedings of the International Congress on. Early in the 1970s, the concept for public key encryption was developed and proven by James H. Ellis, a GCHQ staff member since 1952, who lacked the necessary number theory expertise necessary to build a workable system. Quantum computing will have a profound effect on security infrastructure, which has led NIST to begin preparing IT systems to resist quantum attacks. At lest for now, I see a big problem with giving an answer that involves saying we could just use quantum encryption algorithms. Safeguarding Intangible Assets. For instance, RSA's security relies on the assumption that 1024-bit integers are impossible to factor with today's available computing resources and number theory advances, although it has not yet been. It is resistant to quantum attacks and is categorized as a post quantum cryptosystem. One suspects they have cracked ToR some time ago but it suits to let "crims" think otherwise. It is based on single-particle rotation of unknown quantum states. He is a co-director of the Cryptographic Engineering Research Group (CERG) at the Volgenau School of Engineering.


We give constructions of three-round secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols for general functions that make {\it black-box} use of a two-round oblivious transfer (OT). For the case of semi-honest adversaries, we make use of a two-round, semi-honest secure OT in the plain model. This resolves the round-complexity of black-box (semi-honest) MPC protocols from minimal assumptions and answers an open question of Applebaum et al. (ITCS 2021). For the case of malicious adversaries, we make use of a two-round maliciously-secure OT in the common random/reference string model that satisfies a (mild) variant of adaptive security for the receiver.

Text clustering is an unsupervised process forming its basis solely on finding the similarity relationship between documents with the output as a set of clusters . In this research, a commonality measure is defined to find commonality between two text files which is used as a similarity measure. The main idea is to apply any existing frequent item finding algorithm such as apriori or fp-tree to the initial set of text files to reduce the dimension of the input text files. A document feature vector is formed for all the documents. Then a vector is formed for all the static text input files. The algorithm outputs a set of clusters from the initial input of text files considered.


In cognitive radio (CR) network spectrum sensing is an important issue. Cooperative spectrum sensing improves the detection probability. The accuracy in taking decision about the presence of primary user (PU) depends on sensing time and number of CR users involving in cooperation. A CR network can be efficient if it performs the detection process with minimum error probability and at the same time it maximizes its overall throughput. We have investigated the optimal number of CRs required in cooperation to minimize the total error. Throughput of the CR network has been investigated with respect to sensing time. The performance of the network has been investigated in terms of maximum throughput for optimal number of CR users.

How to Use the Book The material in this book has evolved over many years and is “classroom proven”. We’ve taught it both as a course for beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduate students and as a pure undergraduate course for students majoring in our IT security programs. We found that one can teach most of the book content in a two-semester course, with 90 minutes of lecture time plus 45 minutes of help session with exercises per week (total of 10 ECTS credits). In a typical US-style three-credit course, or in a one-semester European course, some of the material should be omitted.


Anomaly detection is one of the important challenges of network security associated today. We present a novel hybrid technique called G-LDA to identify the anomalies in network traffic. We propose a hybrid technique integrating Latent Dirichlet Allocation and genetic algorithm namely the G-LDA process. Furthermore, feature selection plays an important role in identifying the subset of attributes for determining the anomaly packets. The proposed method is evaluated by carrying out experiments on KDDCUP'99 dataset. The experimental results reveal that the hybrid technique has a better accuracy for detecting known and unknown attacks and a low false positive rate.

The ability to establish private communications over a public medium is exercised billions of times per day

The desire to reduce costs and increase robustness in real-world applications has motivated the study of coexistence between QKD and intense classical data traffic in a single fiber. Previous works on coexistence in metropolitan areas have used wavelength-division multiplexing, however, coexistence in backbone fiber networks remains a great experimental challenge, as Tbps data of up to 20 dBm optical power is transferred, and much more noise is generated for QKD.


This paper presents an efficient technique for detecting zero-day polymorphic worms with almost zero false positives. Zero-day polymorphic worms not only exploit unknown vulnerabilities but also change their own representations on each new infection or encrypt their payloads using a different key per infection. Thus, there are many variations in the signatures for the same worm, making fingerprinting very difficult. With their ability to rapidly propagate, these worms increasingly threaten the Internet hosts and services. If these zero-day worms are not detected and contained at right time, they can potentially disable the Internet or can wreak serious havoc. So the detection of Zero-day polymorphic worms is of paramount importance.

An anonymous reader writes: A 27-year-old Irishman who American prosecutors believe was a top administrator on Silk Road named "Libertas" has been approved for extradition to the United States. According to the Irish Times, a High Court judge ordered Gary Davis to be handed over to American authorities on Friday. In December 2021, federal prosecutors in New York unveiled charges against Davis and two other Silk Road staffers, Andrew Michael Jones ("Inigo") and Peter Phillip Nash ("Samesamebutdifferent"). They were all charged with narcotics trafficking conspiracy, computer hacking conspiracy, and money laundering conspiracy. After a few years of operation, Silk Road itself was shuttered when its creator, Ross Ulbricht, was arrested in San Francisco in October 2021. Ulbricht was convicted at a high-profile trial and was sentenced to life in prison in May 2021.


Machine Learning techniques are most widely used in the field of clustering of data. The K-means algorithm is one which is widely used algorithm for clustering of data sets and is easy to understand and simulate on different datasets. In our paper work we have used K-means algorithm for clustering of yeast dataset and iris datasets, in which clustering resulted in less accuracy with more number of iterations. We are simulating an improved version in K- means algorithm for clustering of these datasets, the Improved K-means algorithm use the technique of minimum spanning tree. An undirected graph is generated for all the input data points and then shortest distance is calculated which intern results in better accuracy and also with less number of iterations. Both algorithms have been simulated using java programming language; the results obtained from both algorithms are been compared and analyzed. Algorithms have been run for several times under different clustering groups and the analysis results showed that the Improved K- means algorithm has provided a better performance as compared to K-means algorithm; also Improved K-means algorithm showed that, as the number of cluster values increases the accuracy of the algorithm also increases. Also we have inferred from the results that at a particular value of K (cluster groups) the accuracy of Improved K-means algorithm is optimal.

Bile is a nonenzymatic secretion produced by hepatocytes. The main components of bile include bile salts necessary for enzymatic fat digestion and absorption, bilirubin, and cholesterol. Drugs and other xenobiotics are also excreted into bile following hepatic metabolization. Bile flow is dependent on the active canalicular transport of bile acids and other substrates mediated by the bile salt export pump (Bsep), which transports osmotically active monoanionic bile salts into the bile canaliculus and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), which exports oxidized and reduced glutathione. Bile secreted by the hepatocytes is stored and concentrated in the gallbladder, which contracts in the presence of the hormone cholecystokinin resulting in bile release into the duodenum through the cystic and common bile duct.


We will study examples in the following. Determine all sequences generated by 1. x4 + x + 1 2. x4 + x2 + 1 3. x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1 Draw the corresponding LFSR for each of the three polynomials. Which of the polynomials is primitive, which is only irreducible, and which one is reducible? Note that the lengths of all sequences generated by each of the LFSRs should add up to 2m − 1. 2/9. Given is a stream cipher which uses a single LFSR as key stream generator.

Wireless sensor based control has drawn attention of many industries because of the reduced cost, easy mobility, easy maintenance, power management etc. Wireless Sensor based systems have been deployed in industries, army and in household for various applications such as monitoring, maintenance, security etc. In this paper we discuss the use of wireless sensor technology (Bluetooth) for energy conservation, in which the sensor are deployed to sense and monitor the environmental conditions and take decisions based on the inputs from the various sensors.


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This paper introduces the Cost Estimation Tool (CET). CET is a costing system used for tracking and analyzing the expenditure incurred by any organization under various departments using step down allocation and apportion technique. The overall aim of the CET is to estimate the cost of all the cost centers in any organization, to guide policy and efficient management of resources for improved services. The purpose of the current effort was to upgrade the accounting practices in the organization by introducing step-down method of apportioning. Here a case study of government Hospital is considered where patient is provided Healthcare services free of cost. But it would be exciting for Healthcare Manager of government Hospital to know the actual cost incurred for patient services. The ultimate objective of costing is to arrive at the cost of every unit, service, procedure, patient wise expenditure and compare the budgeted performance expectations in order to identify problem areas that require immediate attention.

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Imagine that aliens — rather than abducting earthlings and performing strange experiments on them — drop a computer on planet Earth that is particularly suited for AES key searches. In fact, it is so powerful that we can search through 128, 192 and 256 key bits in a matter of days.


General-purpose zero-knowledge proofs for all $\NP$ languages greatly simplify secure protocol design. However, they inherently require the code of the underlying relation. If the relation contains black-box calls to a cryptographic function, the code of that function must be known to use the ZK proof, even if both the relation and the proof require only black-box access to the function.

This article explores a novel way of implementing the artificial neural networks (ANN) by using magnets. Upon implementation it works very efficiently as the data spreads throughout the network, analogous to the natural neuronal systems in the human brain and it requires no computations at all as it is done in the present ANN implementations. The striking feature is, it gives error-free outputs and thereby it proves to be much more efficient compared to the existing artificial neural network systems.


Here are the steps involved in computing the public and private-key for an RSA cryptosystem

Purchasing infrastructure anonymously is most ideal for creating long-term infrastructure (several years or more). Payments should be made anonymously, for instance through digital currencies relying on blockchain technology and prepaid credit cards. The hacker group should make sure that anonymous registration information is provided. Besides that, the hacker group should tread carefully in using the server, for instance the hacker group members should never login to any administration panel of the server from one’s home server. This mistake is often made, that is, there are known cases of people contacting the hosting provider’s helpdesk and signing off with their real name. This will result in operational comprise and severely impede the hacker group’s operations.

CAPTCHAs: An Artificial Intelligence Application to Web

Cryptographically Secure Pseudorandom Number Generators (CSPRNG) Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators (CSPRNGs) are a special type of PRNG which possess the following additional property: A CSPRNG is PRNG which is unpredictable. Informally, this means that given n output bits of the key stream si, si+1, si+n−1, where n is some integer, it is computationally infeasible to compute the subsequent bits si+n, si+n+1. A more exact definition is that given n consecutive bits of the key stream, there is no polynomial time algorithm that can predict the next bit sn+1 with better than 50% chance of success. Another property of CSPRNG is that given the above sequence, it should be computationally infeasible to compute any preceding bits si−1, si−2. Note that the need for unpredictability of CSPRNGs is unique to cryptography. In virtually all other situations where pseudorandom numbers are needed in computer science or engineering, unpredictability is not needed. As a consequence, the distinction between PRNG and CSPRN and their relevance for stream ciphers is often not clear to non-cryptographers. Almost all PRNG that were designed without the clear purpose of being stream ciphers are not CSPRNGs.


The two inputs are combined through a bitwise XOR operation. Note that the XOR operation is equal to addition in the Galois field GF(2).

For sending information to the blockchain requires access to both public and private keys. For example, when Alice wants to send or receive digital currencies from Bob, than Alice and Bob both must-have key pairs.


MixColumn Sublayer The MixColumn step is a linear transformation which mixes each column of the state matrix. Since every input byte influences four output bytes, the MixColumn operation is the major diffusion element in AES. The combination of the ShiftRows and MixColumn layer makes it possible that after only three rounds every byte of the state matrix depends on all 16 plaintext bytes. In the following, we denote the 16-byte input state by B and the 16-byte output state by C: MixColumn(B) = C, where B is the state after the ShiftRows operation as given in Expression (4/1). Now, each 4-byte column is considered as a vector and multiplied by a fixed 4 × 4 matrix. The matrix contains constant entries.

The advancement of computing technology over the years has provided assistance to drivers mainly in the form of intelligent vehicle systems. Driver fatigue is a significant factor in a large number of vehicle accidents. Thus, driver drowsiness detection has been considered a major potential area so as to prevent a huge number of sleep induced road accidents. This paper proposes a vision based intelligent algorithm to detect driver drowsiness. Previous approaches are generally based on blink rate, eye closure, yawning, eye brow shape and other hand engineered facial features. The proposed algorithm makes use of features learnt using convolutional neural network so as to explicitly capture various latent facial features and the complex non-linear feature interactions. A softmax layer is used to classify the driver as drowsy or non-drowsy. This system is hence used for warning the driver of drowsiness or in attention to prevent traffic accidents. We present both qualitative and quantitative results to substantiate the claims made in the paper.


Asymmetric key encryption algorithm developed by Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali in 1982. Provably secure under standard cryptographic assumptions.

Khater is a Professor of Parasitology at Benha University, Egypt. She studied for her doctoral degree, at the Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.


The practical challenges on the web are irrelevant and huge number of services returned by the UDDI and lack of standard mechanisms that helps in the discovery of desired web services. The utilization of the implicit semantic information from the service profiles can help the service consumers in selecting the most relevant services from a set of offered services. In this paper, an approach for web service discovery is proposed which uses a lexical semantic network constructed from the web snippets as a knowledge base for the calculation of semantic similarity between the service profiles. Our approach takes into account the text descriptions and involves mapping of service profiles to a category based dimension vector by using the notion of semantic similarity which is further merged with the IR based techniques of weight generation and is used for calculating the semantic degree of similarity between the services. We present results that we obtained by applying the approach on set of 106 OWL-S service profiles. Empirical evaluation shows that the proposed approach helps in better discovery of semantically similar and relevant services which are otherwise shown to be unrelated by the keyword based approaches.

IT 223 Midterm Review Flashcards

As can be seen from the Table 3/3, exactly 16 of the 32 input bits appear twice in the output. However, an input bit never appears twice in the same 6-bit output block. The expansion box increases the diffusion behavior of DES since certain input bits influence two different output locations.


In today's world the music professionals are facing challenges when they want to practice on any song. The challenge is that the instrumentalists are not available at all times to accompany them. Thus there is an increase demand of the karaoke systems that can generate the instrumental music without having the vocals. This creates a significant need to develop such kind of systems. In this paper we are proposing an efficient approach that helps in creating the karaoke of any song and removes the vocal part from any song. Lots of researchers are focusing on using different aspects, we propose the LPF Technique that is exploited to separate the vocal and the instrumental portion from the song clip. As there is room for additional improvements for the system, the proposed technique is useful and easy to use with the proven validations. The strategy uses the matlab programming environment and the filtering techniques. Using the Matlab GUI one working prototype has been proposed that helps user to create the karaoke which is the vocal separated instrumental only.

Would there be a requirement that if you accept one digital currency you would need to accept them all

Encryption with Trivium Almost all modern stream ciphers have two input parameters: a key k and an initialization vector IV. The former is the regular key that is used in every symmetric crypto system. The IV serves as a randomizer and should take a new value for every encryption session. It is important to note that the IV does not have to be kept secret, it merely must change for every session. Such values are often referred to as nonces, which stands for “number used once”. Its main purpose is that two key streams produced by the cipher should be different, even though the key has not changed. If this were not the case, the following attack becomes possible. If an attacker has known plaintext from a first encryption, he can compute the corresponding key stream. The second encryption using the same key stream can now immediately be deciphered. Without a changing IV, stream cipher encryption is highly deterministic.


It turns out that we can do many other, previously unimaginable, things with public-key cryptography

Asymmetric encryption algorithm developed in 1978 by Robert McEliece. The first such scheme to use randomization in the encryption process.

Note that the substitution table is the key of this cryptosystem

Please note also that the result of the algorithm can be a negative value for t. The result is still correct, however. We have to compute t = t + r0, which is a valid operation since t ≡ t + r0 mod r0. For completeness, we show how the EEA can also be used for computing multiplicative inverses in Galois fields. In modern cryptography this is mainly relevant for the derivation of the AES S-Boxes and for elliptic curve public-key algorithms. The EEA can be used completely analogously with polynomials instead of integers. If we want to compute an inverse in a finite field GF(2m ), the inputs to the algorithm are the field element A(x) and the irreducible polynomial P(x).


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This paper analysis the performance of Fuzzy PD+I and conventional PID controller on nonlinear systems. The nonlinear systems used are level control of a surge tank and cart pole system. Level control of a surge tank level system and angular position of cart pole system have been tracked using Fuzzy PD+I controller and conventional controller. Four type of membership functions Bell, Pi, Gaussian and Psigmoid are used in the fuzzy PD+I control of the nonlinear systems. Effects of different membership functions on the systems control have been compared with conventional PID controller. For four different membership functions besides control performance stability criterion also have been implemented using phase-plane method.

Computer Security Handbook, 5th Edition

The receiver of the packet [(y1, yn ), T, ADD] decrypts the ciphertext by also applying the Counter mode. To check the authenticity of the data, the receiver also computes an authentication tag T using the received ciphertext and ADD as input. He employs exactly the same steps as the sender.


Related Threads on BRS: PKI Cryptosystems for SA/Ms: A Tutorial

However, the S-boxes were carefully designed to also thwart advanced mathematical attacks, in particular differential cryptanalysis. Interestingly, differential cryptanalysis was first discovered in the research community in 1990. At this point, the IBM team declared that the attack was known to the designers at least 16 years earlier, and that DES was especially designed to withstand differential cryptanalysis. Finally, the 32-bit output is permuted bitwise according to the P permutation, which is given in Table 3/12. Unlike the initial permutation IP and its inverse IP−1, the permutation P introduces diffusion because the four output bits of each S-box are permuted in such a way that they affect several different S-boxes in the following round. The diffusion caused by the expansion, S-boxes and the permutation P guarantees that every bit at the end of the fifth round is a function of every plaintext bit and every key bit. This behavior is known as the avalanche effect.

However, in practice, things are a bit more tricky because we still have to assure the authenticity of public keys. In other words: Do we really know that a certain public key belongs to a certain person?


Gene regulation is either an intra-cellular, inter-cellular, intra-tissue or inter-tissue biochemical phenomenon in an organism where a few genes may regulate the expression(s) of any other gene(s), even the expression of itself. The regulation is performed through proteins, metabolites and other genetic spin-offs resulting from the change in environment that genes experience in the cellular context. The gene regulatory network which originates from the regulation process is a potential source from which different physiological, behavioral, medicinal and disease-related issues of an organism can be uncovered. Computational inference of the network is a well-known bioinformatics task. Easy availability of time series gene expression data has made the work easier. But this data suffers from the curse of dimensionality as columns (time points) are few in number in comparison with rows (genes). Methods which are proposed here take the microarray time series gene expression data as input and simulate a time series of larger number of rows with regular small intervals. The parameters of the gene regulatory network are estimated using three variants of Simulated Annealing, viz. Basic Simulated Annealing (BSA), Tabu Simulated Annealing (TSA) and Greedy Simulated Annealing (GSA). During the estimation of parameters, the main focus is on minimizing the cost between actual and simulated time series in successive iterations.

S key dictionary attack

We now analyze the security of DES double encryption (2DES) by doing a cost-estimate: 2DES(x) = DESK2 (DESK1 (x)) 1. First, let us assume a pure key search without any memory usage. For this purpose, the whole key space spanned by K1 and K2 has to be searched. How much does a key-search machine for breaking 2DES (worst case) in 1 week cost? In this case, assume ASICs which can perform 107 keys per second at a cost of $5 per IC. Furthermore, assume an overhead of 50% for building the key search machine.


For the AES algorithm, some computations are done by Galois Fields (GF). With the following problems, we practice some basic computations. Compute the multiplication and addition table for the prime field GF(7). A multiplication table is a square (here: 7 × 7) table which has as its rows and columns all field elements. Its entries are the products of the field element at the corresponding row and column. Note that the table is symmetric along the diagonal.

A multiclass classification refers to the classification of the instance into more than two classes. In real life many classification problem requires decisions among a set of contending classes. Multiclass classification and prediction is suitable for hand written digit recognition, hand written character recognition, speech recognition and body parts recognition etc. This paper compares five classification algorithms namely Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, Naïve Bayes Tree, K-Nearest Neighbor and Bayesian Network algorithms for predicting students' grade particularly for engineering students. This is a four class prediction problem. Student's marks are classified into four classes A, B, C and F respectively. Initially complete data set is used to build the classifiers then Bootstrap method is used to improve the accuracy of the each classifier. Bootstrap method is a resample function available in WEKA tool kit. The excellent results of this function can be seen through IBK, Decision Tree and Bayes Net algorithm. However the overall results of all four algorithms are good but the results of individual classes for Naïve Bayes and NB Tree is not sufficient enough for the individual class prediction particularly for this study.


It is an inevitability that cryptographers dread: the arrival of powerful quantum computers that can break the security of the Internet. Although these devices are thought to be a decade or more away, researchers are adamant that preparations must begin now.

The wireless sensor networks are designed to install the smart network applications or network for emergency solutions, where human interaction is not possible. The nodes in wireless sensor networks have to self organize as per the users requirements through monitoring environments. As the sensor nodes are deployed in an inaccessible location for particular mission, it is difficult to exchange or recharge the nodes battery. Hence the important issues to design the sensor network for maximum time duration of network and also for low power operation of the nodes.


(PDF) Dynamic Password Generation Using Random Pseudo

Among the approximately 216 key candidates k(i) is the correct one that was used by to perform the encryption. Let’s call this one the target key. In order to identify the target key we need a second plaintext–ciphertext pair (x2, y2 ). Again, there are about 216 key candidates that map x2 to y2. One of them is the target key. The other keys can be viewed as randomly drawn from the 280 possible ones. It is crucial to note that the target key must be present in both sets of key candidates.

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In this paper we present an incremental algorithm for mining all the closed intervals from interval dataset. Previous methods for mining closed intervals assume that the dataset is available at the starting of the process, whereas in practice, the data in the dataset may change over time. This paper describes an algorithm, which provides efficient method for mining closed intervals by using a data-structure called CI-Tree (Closed Interval Tree) in dynamically changing datasets. If a new interval is added in the dataset the algorithm modifies the CI-Tree without looking at the dataset. The proposed method is tested with various real life and synthetic datasets.


We have to be careful how to initialize the input to the block cipher. We must prevent using the same input value twice.

For the multiplication of the constants, we have to realize multiplications with the constants 01, 02 and 03. These are quite efficient, and in fact, the three constants were chosen such that software implementation is easy. Multiplication by 01 is multiplication by the identity and does not involve any explicit operation. Multiplication by 02 and 03 can be done through table look-up in two 256-by-8 tables.


Still, the need to identify an entity and associate the entity to the public key is the most challenging stage in authentication. Lamport’s signature essentially requires such an identification process for each signature. Fortunately, many of Lamport’s signatures may share a single public key, which consists of the roots of Merkle tree, one tree for each position of a random number in each pair of the private keys. The first positions, representing the private keys used to sign a zero value of the strings, consist of random numbers, such that such numbers belonging to the first two private keys are concatenated and hashed to yield the value of their common parent in the first Merkle tree.

There is a simple formula which determines the functioning of this LFSR. Let’s look at how the output bits si are computed, assuming the initial state bits s0, s1, s2: s3 ≡ s1 + s0 mod 2 s4 ≡ s2 + s1 mod 2 s5 ≡ s3 + s2 mod 2. In general, the output bit is computed as: si+3 ≡ si+1 + si mod 2 where i = 0, 1, 2. This was, of course, a simple example. However, we could already observe many important properties. We will now look at general LFSRs.


The therapeutic intervention for cholestasis may differ depending on the etiology . Based on controlled clinical trials, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the treatment of choice for diverse cholestatic disorders like primary biliary cirrhosis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy due to its anticholestatic properties. However, UDCA treatment is not so effective in other cholestatic disorders like in primary sclerosing cholangitis. No therapy of proven benefit for the long-term prognosis of genetic cholestatic liver disease exists. In drug-induced cholestasis, withdrawal of the drug is the only effective treatment . Pruritus is a common manifestation of cholestasis, which can be of serious severity. Management of pruritus includes cholestyramine as first line-treatment and then rifampicin, and opiate antagonists .

The bit permutation used in PRESENT is given by Table 3/17. Bit i of STATE is moved to bit position P(i).


With regard to an official NTRU endorsement, OpenSSH intends to disable ssh-rsa in the near term. This will be a traumatic change for legacy systems, many of which will be left with orphaned SSH implementations. With this level of change on the horizon, pressure should be exerted to select the best available cryptosystem, and a case can be made for the inclusion of TinySSH NTRU Prime. No administrator wants to do this twice.

He went on to play the character in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, as well as the three Star Wars prequels from 1999 to 2005. He also appeared in a number of other much loved films in the 1980s, including The Elephant Man, Time Bandits and Flash Gordon.


In Chemical and process industries modeling of non linear systems posses a major challenging task to design engineers due to multivariable process interactions. Innovative technology for process identification is on high demand. A model identification using Neural Networks and ANFIS for the nonlinear systems in series is proposed and designed using conductivity as a measured parameter and flow rate as manipulated variable. Real time experimental data of the non linear system is used to train the neural network by back propagation training algorithm and ANFIS using Matlab. The identified model using various estimators is compared with the actual process model. The error analysis was also performed. Neural Model Predictive Controller controller (NMPC) is designed to control the level. Performance of NMPC compared with traditional PID controller.

The disease diagnosis based on artificial intelligence techniques is an effective technique. To enhance the training procedure of the neural network to diagnose the heart disease effectively, we use a hybrid algorithm which is combination of GSO and ABC. Initially, we generate an initial population that has number of members and the members have the weight values which are used to train the neural network. To identify a perfect member to train the neural network, we use the hybrid algorithm operations.


A Technique for the encryption of the image is proposed using the random phase masks and fractional Fourier transform. The method uses four random phase masks and two fractional orders that act as the encryption key. The encryption scheme transmits the data to the authorised user maintaining its integrity and confidentiality. Numerical simulations results have been carried out to validate the algorithm and its Mean Square Error (MSE) is calculated. Furthermore, an image is divided in to four sections and on each of the section of the image different algorithms are applied and then there encryption and the decryption time is studied and also their MSE are calculated and compared to find an algorithm which is most optimal.

you must import the public key of at least one correspondent into your keyring

First, the 32-bit input is expanded to 48 bits by partitioning the input into eight 4-bit blocks and by expanding each block to 6 bits. This happens in the E-box, which is a special type of permutation. The first block consists of the bits (1, 2, 3, 4), the second one of (5, 6, 7, 8), etc.


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Cloud Computing involves the concepts of parallel processing and distributed computing in order to provide the shared resources by means of Virtual Machines(VMs) hosted by physical servers. Efficient management of VMs directly influences resource utilization and QoS delivered by the system. As the cloud setting is dynamic in nature, the number of VMs distributed among the physical servers tends to become uneven over a period of time. Under this circumstance, VMs must be migrated from overloaded server to underloaded server to balance the load. In this paper, we present a random graph model of the network of servers in a data center. By initiating random walks and using the heuristics Maximum Correlation Coefficient and Migration Opportunity, we select the migrating set of VMs as well as the target server respectively. Simulation results show that the model always finds a target server in minimum time. Also the graph maintains uniform average degree which shows that the network of physical servers remains load balanced even when the load and the migration opportunity vary with time.

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To improve the network performance in multi hop wireless network, cooperative routing is widely used now-a-days. We mainly study the lifetime maximizing broadcast tree generation for a given non cooperative broadcast tree under cooperative routing technique in energy constrained wireless network. The work presented in this paper identifies energy inefficient directed edges and replaces them by directed energy efficient cooperative paths. Energy consumption of a node in broadcast tree includes (1) point to point communication, or (2) point to multipoint communication, or (3) summation of point to point and cooperative communication, or (4) summation of point to multipoint and cooperative communication. Simulation results show that our method improves the network lifetime than most popular MST based broadcast tree.


In this paper we proposed a new statistical multivariate method for tracking an object in a video. This method is based on the Hottelling T 2 test which is designed to provide a global significance test for the difference between two region or two group with simultaneously measured multiple dependent or independent variables. An object to be tracked can be found by comparing its multivariate mean in the successive frame of the video. The T 2 value give the measurement of the difference of two mean vector. In this approach the object window containing the matrix of intensity value is transformed into a set of feature vector. These set of features is compared using multivariate T 2 test in the successive frame for the significant matching of the object in its nearest locality. It is observed that higher the T 2 value more is the chance of mismatching and lower the T 2 value more is the chance of matching the multi attribute. Simulation result shows that the proposed method is capable of accurately detecting the non rigid, moving object in stationary as well as non stationary camera with noisy and occlusion environment.

Overlay security combined with distributed trust forms an immediate quantum-safe alternative to the public key infrastructure. The existing technologies enable (1) the use of multi-logical/multi-physical channels to create a random secret at will, (2) use of the blockchain distributed ledger as a replacement for single point of failure trusted authority, and to (3) produce quantum-safe signatures.


The original cipher proposed by IBM had a key length of 128 bits and it is suspicious that it was reduced to 56 bits. The official statement that a cipher with a shorter key length made it easier to implement the DES algorithm on a single chip in 1974 does not sound too convincing.

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Floorplanning is a key problem in VLSI physical design. The floorplanning problem can be formulated as that a given set of 3D rectangular blocks while minimizing suitable cost functions. Here, we are concentrating on the minimization of the total volume of 3D die. In this paper, first we propose a new topological structure using weighted directed graph of a floorplaning problem in 3D VLSI physical design. But here the main question is this structure is effective or not. For this, we give the idea of a new algorithm to minimize the volume of 3D die in floorplanning problem using this new representation technique. It is interesting to see that our proposed structure is also capable to calculate the total volume and position of the dead spaces if dead spaces exist. Next, we give the experimental result of our new algorithm and then conclude the paper.


Quantum attacks on public-key cryptosystems games

This paper discusses the novel area of Brain Informatics (BI). BI is an interdisciplinary field that studies Information processing and Neuroscience. First section of the paper discusses this area and identifies major research issues associated with BI. Second section provides a comprehensive literature survey of neuroimaging techniques and their pros and cons. It then relates the most promising technique with its applications in BI. The third section discusses the process of classification. The design of classifiers in the context of BI and use of classification in BI is then discussed. The fifth section discusses the applications of analysis of neuroimaging data. The final section concludes the paper and provides directions for future work.

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In the 1980s it would have been impossible to build a DES cracker without spending many millions of dollars. It can be speculated that only government agencies were willing to spend such an amount of money for code breaking.


Applications of Machine Learning in Cryptography: A Survey

Users can easily learn bad habits and reliance on exotic or deprecated functionality with OpenSSH. These features should be extended parsimoniously to experienced users with demonstrated need.

High Speed Computing is a promising technology that meets ever increasing real-time computational demands through leveraging of flexibility and parallelism. This paper introduces a reconfigurable fabric named Reconfigurable High Speed Computing System (RHSCS) and offers high degree of flexibility and parallelism. RHSCS contains Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as a Processing Element (PE). Thus, RHSCS made to share the FPGA resources among the tasks within single application. In this paper an efficient dynamic scheduler is proposed to get full advantage of hardware utilization and also to speed up the application execution. The addressed scheduler distributes the tasks of an application to the resources of RHSCS platform based on the cost function called Minimum Laxity First (MLF). Finally, comparative study has been made for designed scheduling technique with the existing techniques. The proposed platform RHSCS and scheduler with Minimum Laxity First (MLF) as cost function, enhances the speed of an application up to 80/30%.


He observes the ciphertexts going through the communication network. Even though he cannot decipher the random-looking ciphertext blocks, he can check for ciphertext blocks that repeat. After a while he can recognize the five blocks of his own transfer. He now stores blocks 1, 3 and 4 of these transfers. These are the encrypted versions of the ID numbers of both banks as well as the encrypted version of his account at bank B. 4. Recall that the two banks do not change the key too frequently.

We put forth new protocols for oblivious transfer extension and vector OLE, called \emph{Silver}, for SILent Vole and oblivious transfER. Silver offers extremely high performances: generating 10 million random OTs on one core of a standard laptop requires only 300ms of computation and 122KB of communication. This represents 37% less computation and ~1300x less communication than the standard IKNP protocol, as well as ~4x less computation and ~4x less communication than the recent protocol of Yang et al. (CCS 2021). Silver is \emph{silent}: after a one-time cheap interaction, two parties can store small seeds, from which they can later \emph{locally} generate a large number of OTs \emph{while remaining offline}. Neither IKNP nor Yang et al. enjoys this feature; compared to the best known silent OT extension protocol of Boyle et al. (CCS 2021), upon which we build up, Silver has 19x less computation, and the same communication.


One of the most severe diseases in the field of medical science is brain tumor. A proper diagnosis is required in the early phase of tumor growth. In the past various methods had applied on brain MR (Magnetic Resonance) imaging to figure out the proper abnormality region from overall volume of the brain. The literature helps to identify that various bi-clustering algorithms had cluster out the region based on some predefined threshold value which results in generation of cluster which was dependent on specific threshold value only. In this paper a new bi-clustering algorithm has been proposed to cluster out the maximum abnormality area from the brain MR image without any predefined threshold. The algorithm is based on the closely link associated pixel (CLAP) mechanism for tumor segmentation.

Repository of security certificates – either authorization certificates or public key certificates – plus corresponding private keys, used for instance in SSL encryption. In IBM WebSphere Application Server and Oracle WebLogic Server, a file with extension jks serves as a keystore.


In this era, every person is burdened with a number of activities to be carried out. With this busy schedule, some tasks are bound to slip out which may be crucial. It would be easier to deal with tasks if their logical relationships could be recorded and explored by focusing exclusively on the relevant and hiding the irrelevant. Mind Mapping Software allows these relationships to be stored in a graphical format with the ability to fold away or unfold details at will. This paper primarily focuses on integrating various views such as Priority and Temporal views along with the Logical view in the FreeMind, Open-Source Mind Mapping Tool. This is essential because every task must be associated with a deadline before which it must be accomplished. Notifications will be sent to the user in a prioritized manner in which the tasks need to be carried out based on their deadlines.

Metamorphic malware modifies the code of every new offspring by using code obfuscation techniques. Recent research have depicted that metamorphic writers make use of benign dead code to thwart signature and Hidden Markov based detectors. Failure in the detection is due to the fact that the malware code appear statistically similar to benign programs.


The likelihood of this occurring is related to the relative size of the key space and the plaintext space. A brute-force attack is still possible, but several pairs of plaintext–ciphertext are needed. The length of the respective plaintext required to break the cipher with a brute-force attack is referred to as unicity distance. After trying every possible key, there should be just one plaintext that makes sense. Let’s first look why one pair (x1, y1 ) might not be sufficient to identify the correct key. For illustration purposes we assume a cipher with a block width of 64 bit and a key size of 80 bit. If we encrypt x1 under all possible 280 keys, we obtain 280 ciphertexts. However, there exist only 264 different ones, and thus some keys must map x1 to the same ciphertext. If we run through all keys for a given plaintext–ciphertext pair, we find on average 280 /264 = 216 keys that perform the mapping ek (x1 ) = y1. This estimation is valid since the encryption of a plaintext for a given key can be viewed as a random selection of a 64-bit ciphertext string.

Fault Diagnostics and Prognostics has been an increasing interest in recent years, as a result of the increased degree of automation and the growing demand for higher performance, efficiency, reliability and safety in industrial systems. On-line fault detection and isolation methods have been developed for automated processes. These methods include data mining methodologies, artificial intelligence methodologies or combinations of the two. Data Mining is the statistical approach of extracting knowledge from data. Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. Activities in AI include searching, recognizing patterns and making logical inferences. This paper focuses on the various techniques used for Fault Diagnostics and Prognostics in Industry application domains.


This section will introduce the most important terms of modern cryptology and will teach an important lesson about proprietary vs. openly known algorithms. We will also introduce modular arithmetic which is also of major importance in public-key cryptography.

An undesired consequence of the long operands is that public-key schemes are extremely arithmetically intensive. As mentioned earlier, it is not uncommon that one public-operation, say a digital signature, is by 2–3 orders of magnitude slower than the encryption of one block using AES or 3DES.


Chen has recently proposed a visual secret sharing scheme for gray-scale images . Linear equations of Hill cipher are used to divide an image into sub-images and then the concept of random grid is applied to sub-images for construction of encrypted image. The scheme is easy to implement and can be applied for visual secret sharing. However, the scheme suffers from security issues. Although, the random grid is used as a second layer of security, it does not play any effective role during decryption. Secondly, even a crude guess of the coefficient matrix used in Hill cipher equations can reveal the secret. To overcome these drawbacks, a new scheme based on linear equation is proposed in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is effective and secure.

For a given finite field GF(2m ) and the corresponding irreducible reduction polynomial P(x), the inverse A−1 of a nonzero element A ∈ GF(2m ) is defined as: A−1 (x) · A(x) = 1 mod P(x). For small fields — in practice this often means fields with 216 or fewer elements — lookup tables which contain the precomputed inverses of all field elements are often used. Table 4/2 shows the values which are used within the S-Box of AES. The table contains all inverses in GF(28 ) modulo P(x) = x8 + x4 + x3 + x + 1 in hexadecimal notation.


The world remains several years to utilize the centralized architecture which use a third party to control and maintain the trust between communication parties until Szabo at the end of 1990 invented a decentralized digital currency which was called bit gold. After about 10 years, Bitcoin cryptocurrency was presented. Blockchain became broadly popular after the legendary paper of Nakamoto . He proposed substituting the classical centralized architecture with a new technique based on a consensus mechanism. Initially, the technology was named as blockchain as two words “block” and “chain”; however, by 2021, two words are combined into one word to be what we all know now blockchain .

Hardware is relatively expensive to obtain and maintain. Unlike software, hardware cannot be patched remotely or cheaply when it degrades or when vulnerabilities are discovered. Until device-independent QKD is commercially available, each time a new vulnerability is announced in public, potentially compromised QKD devices will need to be recalled to the vendor (or an engineer sent out to apply an upgrade in the field).


The two operations of the field are modular integer addition and integer multiplication modulo p. Theorem 4/3.2 Let p be a prime. The integer ring Z p is denoted as GF(p) and is referred to as a prime field, or as a Galois field with a prime number of elements. All nonzero elements of GF(p) have an inverse.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an endogenous lipophilic compound synthetized in all tissues and cells. The biosynthetic pathway of CoQ in eukaryotes has been characterized by studies of mutants deficient in CoQ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biosynthesis of CoQ initiates with the hydroxybenzoic acid to which a polyisoprenoid lipid tail is attached. Thus, CoQ is the product of two different converging biosynthetic pathways: the synthesis of 4-hydroxybenzoate, derived from the metabolism of tyrosine and the synthesis of the isoprene side chain that begins with the conversion of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) through the mevalonate route and regulated by the HMG CoA reductase. Formerly, the trans-prenyl transferase catalyzes the condensation of farnesyl pyrophosphate with numerous trans isopentenyl pyrophosphates, to form the long isoprenoid chain. Finally, these two pathways converge in a terminal step, where 4-hydroxybenzoate and polyprenyl pyrophosphate are linked by a condensation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme polyprenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate transferase .


The One-Time Pad is a provable secure symmetric cipher. However, it is highly impractical for most applications because the key length has to equal the message length. Single LFSRs make poor stream ciphers despite their good statistical properties. However, careful combinations of several LFSR can yield strong ciphers.

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Phase I: Table Computation For a given plaintext x1, compute a lookup table for all pairs (kL,i, zL,i ), where ekL,i (x1 ) = zL,i and i = 1, 2, 2κ. These computations are symbolized by the left arrow in the figure. The zL,i are the intermediate values that occur in between the two encryptions. This list should be ordered by the values of the zL,i. The number of entries in the table is 2κ, with each entry being n + κ bits wide.


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How costly is a key search in one week? Please note that the key space has to be searched before filling up the memory completely. Then we can begin to search the key space of the second key. Assume the same hardware for both key spaces.

Automatic genre identification is a task which plays a crucial role in many domains such as automatic storytellers, recommender systems and web page topic detectors. Genre classification is especially interesting in the domain of narrative content which is characterized by a large number of ambiguous and overlapping categories. The rise in popularity of social tagging systems forms a rich source of input information which could be harnessed for this task. In this paper we investigate two different information folksonomy sources for the movie domain namely: keywords and tags, the first of which is user annotated and expert monitored whereas the latter is non-monitored. A comparison is performed to assess the efficacy of both sources in solving this multi-label classification problem and it is found that the in spite of being expert monitored and better structured, keywords are worse predictors of the genres of movies than tags in most cases.


In greater detail, the private key is an array of pairs of random numbers. The first random number pair is used to sign the first bit of the message; the second random number pair is used to sign the second bit of the message and so on. Note that, for reasons of efficiency, typically, the hash of the message is signed instead of signing the longer original message. Each random number in each pair is hashed (in fact, any other one-way functions can be used instead of hash), and the resulting array of hashed values serve as the public key. Once the public key is published in a way that links the signing entity to the public key, the construction can serve in signing any single binary string, a string that may be the hash of the original message to be signed. The actual signature is a sequence of random numbers from the private key, one from each pair, attached to the message to be signed. The first random number in the signature is the first (second) random number in the first pair if the first bit to be signed is zero (one, respectively).

Note that polynomial coefficients are computed in GF(2), and since addition and multiplication are the same operations, we can always replace a negative coefficient (such as −x) by a positive one. The new quotient and the new remainder that are computed in every iteration are shown in brackets above. The polynomials ti (x) are computed according to the recursive formula that was used for computing the integers ti earlier in this section.


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One is post-quantum cryptography, which is a new set of standard of classical cryptographic algorithms, and the other is quantum cryptography, which uses the properties of quantum mechanics to secure data. Both may have a place in the future of secure communication, but they work fundamentally differently.

True Random Number Generation We introduced in this chapter different classes of RNGs, and found that cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators are of central importance for stream ciphers. For other cryptographic applications, true random number generators are important. For instance, true random numbers are needed for the generation of cryptographic keys which are then to be distributed. Many ciphers and modes of operation rely on initial values that are often generated from TRNGs. Also, many protocols require nonces (numbers used only once), which may stem from a TRNG.


The presence of unimportant and superfluous features in datasets motivates researchers to devise novel feature selection strategies. The problem of feature selection is multi-objective in nature and hence optimizing feature subsets with respect to any single evaluation criteria is not sufficient . Moreover, discovering a single best subset of features is not of much interest. In fact, finding several feature subsets reflecting a trade off among several objective criteria is more beneficial as it provides the users a broad choice for feature subset selection. Thus, in order to combine several feature selection criteria, we propose multi-objective optimization of feature subsets using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. This work is an attempt to discover non-dominated feature subsets of smaller cardinality with high predictive power and least redundancy. To meet this purpose we have used NSGA II, a well known Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA), for discovering non-dominated feature subsets for the task of classification. The main contribution of this paper is the design of a novel multi-objective fitness function consisting of information gain, mutual correlation and size of the feature subset as the multi-optimization criteria. The suggested approach is validated on seven datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. Support Vector Machine, a well tested classification algorithm is used to measure the classification accuracy.

Terrorists in cyberspace can often use different steganographic tools and encryption methods. Encryption is a way to protect certain content against unwanted and unauthorized reading or change of data. The protection level is determined by an algorithm or key (“encryption algorithm”). There are two types of encryption systems (“cryptosystems”): symmetric and asymmetric. A symmetric system of encryption uses the same “secret key” which is used both for encryption and decryption, and the asymmetric system of encryption uses one public key to encrypt messages, and other, secret one, for decryption.


Group Signatures with Time-bound Keys Revisited

CoQ10 decrease in ICP possibly reveals a disturbance on the delicate balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses, thus accumulating large amounts of free radicals, imparing energy production, and increasing risk for the fetus. Although the relationship between CoQ10 and serum bile acids is not well established, it is possible that reduced CoQ10 levels result from enhanced ubiquinone extraction from blood because of higher cellular demand. As it was previously mentioned, it is also probable that CoQ10 depletion may be caused by increased proportion of circulating and intracellular hydrophobic bile acids and enhanced consumption of the CoQ10 by free radicals and/or a metabolic down regulation. The relationship between CoQ and bile acids will be discussed in the next section.

A bitwise permutation can be viewed as simple crosswiring. Interestingly, permutations can be very easily implemented in hardware but are not particularly fast in software. Note that both permutations do not increase the security of DES at all.


Early versions of the PKCS standard used constructions, which were later found vulnerable to a practical adaptive chosen. Veronika kuchta of will present a post-quantum construction of a fully homomorphic identity-based encryption. DennisP on Feb 8, 2020 That means quantum computers won't speed up mining, but it's public key crypto that protects your coins from getting stolen. Threefish uses no S-boxes or other table lookups in order to avoid cache timing. Code clones generally occurs in large systems and affects the system maint. Public-key, lattice-based, and advanced cryptographic primitives. This paper introduces a course. Moni dissertation the design of public-key cryptosystems resilient to and key-leakage attacks. Sometime soon, it's going to have a competition for quantum-resistant public-key algorithms: Creating those newer, safer algorithms is the longer-term goal, Moody says. RSA therefore there is no need to specify it with the -t option. Print Edition Sponsors Funding for this guide has been generously provided by these sponsors Produced by the CS Education Research Group, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, and by many others. Experts caution the lovelorn against entrusting their hearts.

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Bisection Method is one of the simplest methods in numerical analysis to find the roots of a non-linear equation. It is based on Intermediate Value Theorem. The algorithm proposed in this paper predicts the optimal interval in which the roots of the function may lie and then applies the bisection method to converge at the root within the tolerance range defined by the user. This algorithm also calculates another root of the equation, if that root lies just outside the range of the interval found.


Implementation With respect to software implementation of DES, an early reference is . More advanced techniques are described in . The powerful method of bit-slicing is applicable not only to DES but to most other ciphers. Regarding DES hardware implementation, an early but still very interesting reference is . There are many descriptions of high-performance implementations of DES on a variety of hardware platforms, including FPGAs , standard ASICs as well as more exotic semiconductor technology .

A secret-sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret $s$ among $n$ parties such that only some predefined ``authorized'' sets of parties can reconstruct the secret, and all other ``unauthorized'' sets learn nothing about $s$. The collection of authorized/unauthorized sets is be captured by a monotone function $f:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \{0,1\}$. In this paper, we focus on monotone functions that all their min-terms are sets of size $a$, and on their duals - monotone functions whose max-terms are of size $b$. We refer to these classes as $(a,n)$-\emph{upslices} and $(b,n)$-\emph{downslices}, and note that these natural families correspond to monotone $a$-regular DNFs and monotone $(n-b)$-regular CNFs.


Hashing algorithms are used extensively in information security and digital forensics applications. This paper presents an efficient parallel algorithm hash computation. It's a modification of the SHA-1 algorithm for faster parallel implementation in applications such as the digital signature and data preservation in digital forensics. The algorithm implements recursive hash to break the chain dependencies of the standard hash function. We discuss the theoretical foundation for the work including the collision probability and the performance implications. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenMP API and experiments performed using machines with multicore processors. The results show a performance gain by more than a factor of 3 when running on the 8-core configuration of the machine.

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are resource constrained (compared to the requirement of video communication), where the sensor nodes have limited bandwidth, energy, processing power and memory. Resource mapping is required in such networks, which is based on user requirements to offer better communication services as well as to use optimal resources. This paper proposes Mamdani's fuzzy inference system (FIS) to map the user requirement to resource demands by considering video/image. The input fuzzy parameters used are: available node energy, available bandwidth, and user quality needs. Output fuzzy parameter is frames to be transmitted per second (fps). By using `fps' and the resolution of an image, the sensor node computes bandwidth and buffer requirements. The various defuzzification methods: centroid, smallest of maximum, and mean of maximum are used to get the response from the fuzzy inference system, and later they are compared.


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The main objective of secure system design is to make breaking the system more costly than the value of the protected assets, where the “cost” should be measured in monetary value but also in more abstract terms such as effort or reputation. Generally speaking, adding security to a system often narrows its usability. In order to approach the problem systematically, several general frameworks exist. They typically require that assets and corresponding security needs have to be defined, and that the attack potential and possible attack paths must be evaluated. Finally, adequate countermeasures have to be specified in order to realize an appropriate level of security for a particular application or environment. There are standards which can be used for evaluation and help to define a secure system. Among the more prominent ones are ISO/IEC (15408, 15443-1, 15446, 19790, 19791, 19792, 21827), the Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation , the German IT-Grundschutzhandbuch , FIPS PUBS and many more.

However, if the order of a finite field is not prime, and 28 is clearly not a prime, the addition and multiplication operation cannot be represented by addition and multiplication of integers modulo 28. Such fields with m > 1 are called extension fields. In order to deal with extension fields we need (1) a different notation for field elements and (2) different rules for performing arithmetic with the elements. We will see in the following that elements of extension fields can be represented as polynomials, and that computation in the extension field is achieved by performing a certain type of polynomial arithmetic. In extension fields GF(2m ) elements are not represented as integers but as polynomials with coefficients in GF(2). The polynomials have a maximum degree of m − 1, so that there are m coefficients in total for every element. In the field GF(28 ), which is used in AES, each element A ∈ GF(28 ) is thus represented as: A(x) = a7 x7 + · · · + a1 x + a0, ai ∈ GF(2) = {0, 1}. Note that there are exactly 256 = 28 such polynomials. The set of these 256 polynomials is the finite field GF(28 ). It is also important to observe that every polynomial can simply be stored in digital form as an 8-bit vector A = (a7, a6, a5, a4, a3, a2, a1, a0 ). In particular, we do not have to store the factors x7, x6, etc. It is clear from the bit positions to which power xi each coefficient belongs.


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On the contrary, secondary CoQ10 deficiency is more frequent and of less severe clinical presentation. However, its treatment only ameliorates the symptoms although improve life quality. Secondary CoQ10 deficiency is associated to different pathologies such as neuro-muscular degenerative pathologies, cardiovascular, thyroid and reproductive diseases as well as cancer among others [43, 44, 45, 46]. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency is commonly found associated to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation impairment, probably as an adaptive mechanism to maintain a balance in mitochondrial redox status. However, in spite of the high incidence of secondary CoQ deficiencies, the precise mechanisms underlying these secondary deficiencies remain unidentified specially in non-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorders .

Our construction relies on the standard LWE assumption. As an important stepping stone, we propose new, more generalized definitions for a cryptographic object called a Privately Puncturable Pseudorandom Set, and give novel constructions that depart significantly from prior approaches.


A storage system in a data center consists of various components such as Disk Array Enclosure (DAE), disks, processors, servers, hosts running different applications, and so on. Hard disk and server failures are not frequent but are often very costly. Such failures can have a very adverse effect on the business of an organization. The ability to accurately predict an impending disk or server failure can add an essential functionality for designing a reliable, fault tolerant and continuously available storage system. This paper explains a novel approach to predict hardware failures using spectrum-kernel Parallel Support Vector Machine (Parallel SVM) method by analyzing the system events logged in the system log files. These log files not only records the events processed by the system but it also holds the messages as the system state changes. A single message in the system log file is insufficient for any prediction and such prediction is bound to be less accurate. The approach introduced in the paper uses a sequence or pattern of messages from the system log file using a Sliding Window of messages with window size of 5 message sequence to predict the likelihood of a failure. These Sliding Windows of message sequences acts as inputs to the Parallel SVM. The Parallel SVM further tags the messages to a failure or non-failure system. Data Mining techniques are used in extracting useful information from the raw dataset.

It must be pointed out that the orientation of the hydroxy group rules over the properties in the molecule. This can be seen on the CDCA (7α) and its epimer, the UDCA (7β), where the UDCA showed a strong reduction of detergency and hydrophobicity. Also, the BA toxicity is directly related to its hydrophobicity and detergency, because those interact with the cellular membranes in different ways, including the union, the insertion in the lipidic bilayer and its solubilization increasing its fluidity .


The modeling turns out to be quite involved and multiple subtle points arise and particular cares are required. We present general constructions from standard assumptions. We also demonstrate three applications in non-malleable (perfect one-way) hash, group signatures with verifier-local revocations and plaintext-checkable public-key encryption. Our waNIZK provides a new tool to advance the state of the art in all these applications.

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Sign Language, a language that uses a system of manual, facial, and other body movements as the means of communication, is the primary means of communication for people having speaking and hearing impairment. This paper uses image processing and fuzzy rule based system to develop an intelligent system which can act as an interpreter between the Bengali sign language and the spoken language. Initially the data is processed from raw images and then the rules are identified by measuring angles. Primarily, the system is tested only for two letters in Bengali.


Again, we assume κ bits per key. The problem for an attacker is that she has to compute a lookup table either after the first or after the second encryption. In both cases, the attacker has to compute two encryptions or decryptions in a row in order to reach the lookup table. Here lies the cryptographic strength of triple encryption: There are 22k possibilities to run through all possible keys of two encryptions or decryptions. In the case of 3DES, this forces an attacker to perform 2112 key tests, which is entirely infeasible with current technology. In summary, the meet-in-themiddle attack reduces the effective key length of triple encryption from 3 κ to 2 κ. Because of this, it is often said that the effective key length of triple DES is 112 bits as opposed to 3 · 56 = 168 bits which are actually used as input to the cipher.

In the field of cholestasis therapeutics, CoQ10 synthetic analog (idebenone) has shown to prevent BA stimulation of ROS from hepatic mitochondria and isolated hepatocytes . Therefore, taking into account the deficiency of CoQ found in ICP, supplementation with CoQ10 could represent a new complementary therapeutic proposal for ICP in order to protect both the mother and the newborn. However, further studies are required to obtain a deeper conclusion.


In a two-tier wireless sensor network (WSN), the relay nodes act as the cluster heads for data aggregation and dissemination to the base station. It is very crucial and difficult to find the proper position where the relay nodes can be placed so that the WSN is fully covered and connected. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for placing minimum number of relay nodes with full coverage and connectivity of the WSN with the constraint of minimizing the overall communication cost. The algorithm is based on spiral sequence generated for arbitrarily deployed sensor nodes. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Understanding workload characteristics is crucial for optimizing and improving the performance of large scale data produced by different industries. In this paper, we analyse a large scale production workload trace (version 2) which is recently made publicly available by Google. We discuss statistical summary of the data. Further we perform k-means clustering to identify common groups of job. Cluster analysis provides insight into the data by dividing the objects into groups (clusters) of objects, such that objects in a cluster are more similar to each other than to the objects in other clusters. This work presents a simple technique for constructing workload characteristics and also provides production insights into understanding workload performance in cluster machine.


Palm leaf manuscripts are one of the earliest forms of written media that has enlightened humanity with various subjects such as medicine, astronomy, mathematics and astrology. Many palm leaf manuscripts are approaching the end of their natural life time and are undergoing rapid degradation. The primary objective of image processing with such degraded palm leaf manuscripts is to retrieve and preserve the historical knowledge. The main objective of the paper is the accurate extraction of foreground information from palm leaf images. We apply the concept of clustering in palm leaf image binarization with three dimensional features. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method, a set of ground truth corresponding to ten palm leaf images is generated. It allows setting the benchmark for the proposed and existing technique's practical effectiveness. The proposed clustering based method is observed to achieve higher binarization accuracy in palm leaf manuscripts than the thresholding based approaches.

The 16-byte output B0, B15 is permuted byte-wise in the ShiftRows layer and mixed by the MixColumn transformation c(x). Finally, the 128-bit subkey ki is XORed with the intermediate result. We note that AES is a byte-oriented cipher.


Post-quantum cryptography is classical cryptography that stands up to the attacks of a large quantum computer. It does not use any quantum properties. It doesn’t need any specialized hardware. It’s based on hard mathematical problems, just like the cryptography we have today. However, post-quantum cryptography avoids using integer factorization and discrete log problems to encrypt data. We already know that these problems are vulnerable to algorithms run on a quantum computer.

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Routing of data packets from source to destination is the primary function of Network layer. If a single path is chosen for data transfer from source to destination, congestion and packet transfer delay increases. In order to minimize this problem, multi-path routing protocol is preferred. There are many multipath routing techniques available; such as SMPC, SMPC-I, SMPC-P. In multi-path routing, not all the paths may have the same capacity, and then there is every possibility of occurrence of congestion at a router in the path. The proposed method provides a better solution for minimizing the congestion by rerouting the data packets over other paths, which are not utilized by the same in multi-path routing. This method avoids the unnecessary dropping of packets at a congested router and improves the network performance.


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Another very simple yet effective approach to increase the brute-force resistance of block ciphers is called key whitening; it is also discussed below. We note here that when using AES, we already have three different security levels given by the key lengths of 128, 192 and 256 bits. Given that there are no realistic attacks known against AES with any of those key lengths, there appears no reason to perform multiple encryption with AES for practical systems. However, for some selected older ciphers, especially for DES, multiple encryption can be a useful tool.

The asymmetric encryption schemes, proposed by Merkle , Diffie and Hellman , and Rivest et al. , revolutionized cryptography. The idea to use computational tasks in order to establish a symmetric key started with the suggestion of Merkle to use computation puzzles. Merkle’s puzzle scheme started with Alice choosing at random many computation puzzles, possibly hashed random numbers (with tuned lengths) each concatenated with a sequence number, such that Bob is able to randomly choose one of the puzzles and reverse this number in reasonable time. Then, Bob sends a few of the bits of the revealed random number back to Alice, identifying the puzzle Bob decided to solve. Both Alice and Bob will be using the unrevealed bits of the solved puzzle as their symmetric key. Eve on the other hand will not know which of the puzzles was chosen by Bob, will likely have to solve many puzzles before identifying the puzzle randomly chosen by Bob, and revealing the symmetric key they use. Later Diffie and Helman and then Rivest, Shamir and Adelman suggested more efficient schemes based on number theory assumptions.


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Assume the IV and the key of Trivium each consist of 80 all-zero bits. Compute the first 70 bits s1, s70 during the warm-up phase of Trivium. Note that these are only internal bits which are not used for encryption since the warm-up phase lasts for 1152 clock cycles.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where each mobile node works as a host as well as a router. With the growth and proliferation of these devices in every aspect of society, the need for such devices to communicate in a seamless manner is becoming increasingly essential. Applications supported by MANETs have stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and to support these QoS parameters MANETs should have efficient routing protocols. Most of the reactive routing protocols like AODV provide a single route for packet delivery. However, when the single route fails, it results in a decline in a performance of various QoS parameters. Providing a single backup route also does not solve the problem completely as the backup route may also fail. Also, providing multiple backup routes may lead to multiple packets flooding the network. Hence, an efficient routing protocol is required which provides solution to this problem. This paper proposes AODV routing protocol with nth backup route (AODV nthBR) that provides source node with more than one back up routes in case of a link failure. The proposed scheme results in better throughput, lesser end to end delay and improved lifetime of devices.


Clinical presentation of cholestasis includes jaundice, pruritus, skin xanthomas, or symptoms associated with intestinal malabsorption. Jaundice and pruritus are present in all types of cholestasis whether acute or chronic, whereas the other clinical features are more associated with chronic cholestasis.

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In this chapter, we describe the mathematics of the NTRU cryptosystem and the hard problems that make the. From Single User to Small Enterprise and Beyond. Y Combinator-backed fast-growing tech startup with headquarters in San Francisco and Lisbon, Portugal. RSA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia RSA Security - Crypto FAQ PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Standard RSA Encryption - from Wolfram MathWorld MathWorld News: RSA-640 Factored RSA Security A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems - PDF How the RSA Cipher Works Twenty years of attacks on the RSA cryptosystem The Prime Glossary: RSA cryptosystem RSA Security Conference. Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on CRYPTOSYSTEMS. Asymmetric encryption is a process that uses public key and private key encryption to make messa ges unreadable without knowing a user's plaintext password. Full Text: PDF Get this Article: Authors: Pankaj Deep Kaur. It also turns out though that there is something called Grover's algorithm, which actually does let quantum computers break symmetric. Libtom/libtomcrypt - LibTomCrypt is a fairly comprehensive, modular and portable cryptographic toolkit that provides developers with a vast array of well known published block ciphers, one-way hash functions, chaining modes, pseudo-random number generators, public key cryptography and a plethora of other routines. Tomorrow is Valentine's Day. Quantum Attacks on Public-Key Cryptosystems presemts almost all known quantum computing based attacks on public-key cryptosystems, with an emphasis on quantum. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel; Published: Week Ending 9/23/2020, PRL 111, 130501 (2020), Physics Review Letters, Selected for a Viewpoint in Physics: Viewpoint: Foiling Quantum Hackers; Physics - Spotlighting Exceptional Research.


We show that for circuit evaluation protocols that satisfy mild security and structural requirements, that are met by almost all standard protocols with semi-honest security, the extra {\em additive} storage and online communication costs are both {\em logarithmic} in the circuit size. This applies to Boolean circuits and to arithmetic circuits over fields or rings, and to both information-theoretic and computationally secure protocols.

Note that every round key is a selection of 48 permuted bits of the input key k. The key schedule is merely a method of realizing the 16 permutations systematically. Especially in hardware, the key schedule is very easy to implement. The key schedule is also designed so that each of the 56 key bits is used in different round keys; each bit is used in approximately 14 of the 16 round keys.


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However, a cryptosystem where the key bits only occur in linear relationships makes a highly insecure cipher. We will now investigate how the linear behavior of a LFSR leads to a powerful attack. If we use an LFSR as a stream cipher, the secret key k is the feedback coefficient vector (pm−1, p1, p0 ). An attack is possible if the attacker Oscar knows some plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext. We further assume that Oscar knows the degree m of the LFSR. The attack is so efficient that he can easily try a large number of possible m values, so that this assumption is not a major restriction. Let the known plaintext be given by x0, x1, x2m−1 and the corresponding ciphertext by y0, y1, y2m−1.

In medical image processing, low contrast image analysis is a challenging problem. Low contrast digital images reduce the ability of observer in analyzing the image. Histogram based techniques are used to enhance contrast of all type of medical images. They are mainly used for all type of medical images such as for Mias-mammogram images, these methods are used to find exact locations of cancerous regions and for low-dose CT images, these methods are used to intensify tiny anatomies like vessels, lungs nodules, airways and pulmonary fissures. The most effective method used for contrast enhancement is Histogram Equalization (HE). Here we propose a new method named “Modified Histogram Based Contrast Enhancement using Homomorphic Filtering” (MH-FIL) for medical images. This method uses two step processing, in first step global contrast of image is enhanced using histogram modification followed by histogram equalization and then in second step homomorphic filtering is used for image sharpening, this filtering if followed by image normalization. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method we choose two widely used metrics Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE) and Entropy. Based on results of these two metrics this algorithm is proved as a flexible and effective way for medical image enhancement and can be used as a pre-processing step for medical image understanding and analysis.


In 1994, Peter Shor of Bell Laboratories showed that quantum computers, a new technology leveraging the physical properties of matter and energy to perform calculations, can efficiently solve each of these problems, thereby rendering all public key cryptosystems based on such assumptions impotent. Thus a sufficiently powerful quantum computer will put many forms of modern communication—from key exchange to encryption to digital authentication—in peril.

Mass failures of slope, which includes movement in soil, rock, ice which cause a considerable damage to the natural habitat, environment, economy and other resources. Detection, monitoring and control are the three major issues regarding Real-Time applications. For a large scale detection of fault and monitoring the faults is one of the important applications that lead to advancement of many kind of technologies. In this paper A Land-Slide detection system is being developed at Bidholi (village), Dehradun, India, a region with high rainfall and versatile climatic behavior most of the year. Integrating Geo-physical sensors forming a heterogeneous wireless network helps in identifying the fault and this paper also includes development, deployment (analysis) and data retrieval of the sensors information using WSN.


Due to the advancements in the wireless technologies and its wholesome support of mobility, the growth of mobile users is exponential. The applications like video and audio streaming does not sustain continuous data flow due to handover as it disconnects the flow during handover over the mobile IPv6 networks. In this paper, we focus on session handover by using session rate prediction to enable video session continuity without video freeze for mobile wireless networks. The results are presented to differentiate latency and workload between IntraDomain and InterDomain session handover to facilitate seamless streaming over the mobile networks.

We show that any ORAM must make (amortized) $$ \Omega\left(\log \left(\frac{Nw}{m}\right)/\log\left(\frac{b}{w}\right)\right) $$ memory probes for every logical operation. Here, $m$ denotes the bit-size of the local storage of the ORAM. Our lower bound implies that logarithmic overhead in accesses is necessary, even if $ b \gg w$. Our lower bound is tight for \emph{all} settings of parameters, up to the $\log(b/w)$ factor.


Why Should We Prepare for Post Quantum Cryptography

Stated differently, we only need to spend about 1/1000th of today’s money to do the same computation. In the example above that means that we can break cipher X in 15 years within one month at a cost of about $1, 000, 000/1024 ≈ $1000. Alternatively, with $1,000,000, an attack can be accomplished within 45 minutes in 15 years from now. Moore’s Law behaves similarly to a bank account with a 50% interest rate: The compound interest grows very, very quickly. Unfortunately, there are few trustworthy banks which offer such an interest rate.

This paper addresses the problem of image enhancement thereby enhancement of scene visibility in outdoor images. Visibility is a very important issue in case of computer based surveillance, crime analysis, driver assistance system design etc. The most important challenge related to visibility is the atmospheric haze and poor lighting. The problem becomes more challenging if haze is too dense and lighting during night is extremely poor.


Many of the recent advanced lattice-based Sigma-/public-coin honest verifier (HVZK) interactive protocols based on the techniques developed by Lyubashevsky (Asiacrypt'09, Eurocrypt'12) can be transformed into a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof in the random oracle model (ROM) using the Fiat-Shamir transform. Unfortunately, although they are known to be secure in the __classical__ ROM, existing proof techniques are incapable of proving them secure in the __quantum__ ROM (QROM).

This paper proposes complex wavelet-based moving object segmentation using approximate median filter based method. The proposed method is well capable of dealing with the drawbacks such as ghosts, shadows and noise present in other spatial domain methods available in literature. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared with other standard spatial domain methods. The various performance measures used for comparison include RFAM (relative foreground area measure), MP (misclassification penalty), RPM (relative position based measure), NCC (normalized cross correlation) and the various methods are tested on standard Pets dataset. Finally, based on performance analysis it is observed that the proposed method in complex wavelet domain is performing better in comparison to other methods as presented in the paper.


Assume we perform a known-plaintext attack against DES with one pair of plaintext and ciphertext. How many keys do we have to test in a worst-case scenario if we apply an exhaustive key search in a straightforward way?

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Cheque Truncation System (CTS) is an image based cheque clearing system to speed up the process of clearing the cheques. Financial frauds are being carried out by tampering the content of the cheque image. Therefore, there is a need of detecting this kind of tampering of images. This paper proposes a method to detect whether a cheque image has been tampered or not. A difference expansion based watermarking technique is applied for this purpose. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully distinguishes between genuine and tampered cheque images.


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BitTorrent is one of the most popular peer to peer (P2P) protocols used for downloading large sized files over internet. Success of BitTorrent relies heavily upon the peers contributing to the protocol by uploading the partially (or fully) downloaded files to other peers. However, it is matter of common observation that very often a peer is found only downloading large files and not allowing uploading of files so as to minimize bandwidth utilization at its own end. Such peers are referred as free-riders and the phenomenon is called free-riding. Free-riding is a major problem in BitTorrent based peer to peer protocol because such free rides consume network resources (download files) without contributing to the network (upload files). In this paper, we first prove empirically that presence of free-riders degrades the performance of BitTorrent system by increasing the download time of peers in P2P networks. Thereafter, a detection-cum-punishment mechanism is proposed which detects and punishes free-riders in P2P network. Impact of proposed mechanism on free-riders and non-free-riders is analyzed using ns-2 based simulation. Results prove that the proposed punishment mechanism improves the performance of the P2P network by decreasing the download times of non-free-rider peers of the network and punishes free-riders by increasing their download times.

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Frequent pattern mining is an important area in data mining. Transactional databases are insufficient to analyze current shopping trends and as such we should consider Dynamic Datasets that updates transactions in an adhoc basis. Algorithms such as Apriori require more time to generate huge set of rules. Discovering interesting rules from the generated rules is difficult. Works that are reported until now in reducing number of rules are either time consuming or does not consider the interestingness of the user and does not focus on analysis of rules. This paper presents a case study on grocery data that uses SSFPOA semantic measure to reduce number of generated patterns, clusters the similar patterns and visualizes these clusters for easy analysis. Six graphs namely NCGraph, NSGraph, LCGraph, LSGraph, NEGraph and HGraph are proposed in VizSFP for visualizing frequent patterns. Clusters that are formed by SSFPOA are validated using clustering validating indices.


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Internet is an ever changing and rapidly progressing entity. With each passing day, we come across a new technology or concept. Many of these concepts pass as a fad but few become the cornerstone of our future technology. Three of the hottest current research topics which are highly inter-related are cyber physical cloud (CPC), cloud of sensors (CoS) and internet of things (IoT). All these have sensors and cloud as integral part of their architecture. While the first two topics are directly related to cloud, the third one requires cloud computing in backend for huge amounts of data processing and storage. In this paper, we will study these concepts with intent of finding the area of overlap or similarities and their subtle yet important differences.

AES is with its three key lengths of 128, 192 and 256 bit secure against brute-force attacks for several decades, and there are no analytical attacks with any reasonable chance of success known. AES was the result of an open competition, and in the last stage of the selection process there were four other finalist algorithms. These are the block ciphers Mars, RC6, Serpent and Twofish. All of them are cryptographically strong and quite fast, especially in software. Based on today’s knowledge, they can all be recommended. Mars, Serpent and Twofish can be used royalty-free.


Game-theoretic analysis of cryptocurrencies and, more generally, blockchain-based decentralized ledgers offers insight on their economic robustness, and their behavior when even the cryptographic assumptions that underpin their security fail. In this work we utilize the recently proposed blockchain adaptation of the rational protocol design (RPD) framework [EUROCRYPT~'18] to analyze 51\% double-spending attacks against Nakamoto-style cryptocurrencies.

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Note that B = (b 7, b 0 ) is the bitwise vector representation of B i (x) = A−1 i (x). This second step is referred to as affine mapping. Let’s look at an example of how the S-Box computations work.


The need for a quantum-safe Internet is emerging, and this is a great opportunity to re-examine the legacy of public key infrastructure. There is a need for perspective on the evolution of cryptography over the years, including the perfect information-theoretical secure schemes and the computationally secure schemes, in particular. There is also a need to examine the evolving Internet infrastructure to identify efficient design and secure cryptographic schemes over the existing Internet infrastructure. A combination of overlay security, blockchain, and Merkle trees with Lamport’s signatures offers just such an easily implementable quantum-safe Internet.

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There is no doubt that emerging application areas such as e-health, car telematics and smart buildings will make cryptography even more ubiquitous. Cryptology is a fascinating discipline at the intersection of computer science, mathematics and electrical engineering. As cryptology is moving fast, it is hard to keep up with all the developments. During the last 25 years, the theoretical foundations of the area have been strengthened; we now have a solid understanding of security definitions and of ways to prove constructions secure. Also in the area of applied cryptography we witness very fast developments: old algorithms are broken and withdrawn and new algorithms and protocols emerge. While several excellent textbooks on cryptology have been published in the last decade, they tend to focus on readers with a strong mathematical background. Moreover, the exciting new developments and advanced protocols form a temptation to add ever more fancy material. It is the great merit of this textbook that it restricts itself to those topics that are relevant to practitioners today. Moreover, the mathematical background and formalism is limited to what is strictly necessary and it is introduced exactly in the place where it is needed.


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This paper proposes a new algorithm for compression of color images using RGB and Y CBCR color space models. The scheme is applied by using Biortho wavelet filter on the standard images like Barbara, Pepper, Lena and Zedla.

As we learned in this chapter, modular arithmetic is the basis of many cryptosystems. As a consequence, we will address this topic with several problems in this and upcoming chapters.


The question remains how one can build public-key algorithms

Software Unlike DES, AES was designed such that an efficient software implementation is possible. A straightforward implementation of AES which directly follows the data path description, such as the description given in this chapter, is well suited for 8bit processors such as those found on smart cards, but is not particularly efficient on 32-bit or 64-bit machines, which are common in today’s PCs. In a na¨ıve implementation, all time-critical functions (Byte Substitution, ShiftRows, MixColumn) operate on individual bytes. Processing 1 byte per instruction is inefficient on modern 32-bit or 64-bit processors. However, the Rijndael designers proposed a method which results in fast software implementations. The core idea is to merge all round functions (except the rather trivial key addition) into one table look-up. This results in four tables, each of which consists of 256 entries, where each entry is 32 bits wide.

We propose new designs of symmetric primitives based on alternating moduli. These include candidate one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, and weak pseudorandom functions.


Security of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols

From here we obtain the final result easily as 16 ≡ 2 mod 7. Note that we could perform the second method without a pocket calculator since the numbers never become larger than 81. For the first method, on the other hand, dividing 6561 by 7 is mentally already a bit challenging. As a general rule we should remember that it is almost always of computational advantage to apply the modulo reduction as soon as we can in order to keep the numbers small. Of course, the final result of any modulo computation is always the same, no matter how often we switch back and forth between equivalent classes.

All of these post-quantum cryptography algorithms would not need any quantum hardware to encrypt data. They base the encryption on new mathematical problems that are not vulnerable to known quantum computing attacks. And of course, we have to make sure that while it stands up to (known) quantum computing attacks, it also holds against supercomputers.


For the QKD technology to be widely adopted, critical requirements are security certification, test-and-measurement method, security criteria for implementation, and countermeasures against the side channels. Moreover, those should be acceptable for non-experts.

This paper introduces simple Euler method to the existing roach infestation optimization algorithm to improve swarm stability and enhance local and global search performance. A dynamic step size adaptation roach infestation optimization (DSARIO) algorithm is proposed using the Euler step size adaptation. Experimental results obtained from the proposed algorithm demonstrated improved accuracy and convergence ability over existing roach infestation optimization algorithm. Also the numerical results with the proposed algorithm show clearly its ability to solve multi-dimensional problems. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of existing roach infestation optimization and hungry roach infestation optimization algorithms.


Cloud Computing is on demand network, data access anywhere anytime. Pay per model is gaining commercial day by day. Due to the popularity of cloud and all time availability, the security issue is again the main concern nowadays. The client don't know where the data is stored and in which datacenter. The distributed nature of cloud is again the point of security in cloud and also gives the chance to malicious activities to be carried out very easily. Cloud computing presents the abstract layer to user for storing their confidential data hiding their architectural details. Due to this whenever the malicious activity happens in cloud, it becomes very difficult to trace. This gives rise to new area of research in the field of digital forensics that has unique challenges and opportunities in context of cloud. This paper presents the detail study of malicious activity that can be carried out in cloud and with the help of some case studies and detailed methodology of proposed architecture earlier mentioned in the paper.

Classification is the best way to partition a given data set. Decision tree is one of the common methods for extracting knowledge from the data set. Traditional decision tree faces the problem of crisp boundary hence fuzzy boundary conditions are proposed in this research. The paper proposes Fuzzy Heterogeneous Split Measure (FHSM) algorithm for decision tree construction that uses trapezoidal membership function to assign fuzzy membership value to the attributes. Size of the decision tree is one of the main concern as larger size leads to incomprehensible rules. The proposed algorithm tries to reduce the size of the decision tree generated by fixing the value of the control variable in this approach without compromising the classification accuracy.


Often they are computed recursively in the following way: s0 = seed si+1 = f (si ), i = 0, 1. A generalization of this are generators of the form si+1 = f (si, si−1, si−t ), where t is a fixed integer. A popular example is the linear congruential generator: s0 = seed si+1 ≡ a si + b mod m, i = 0, 1. where a, b, m are integer constants. Note that PRNGs are not random in a true sense because they can be computed and are thus completely deterministic. A widely used example is the rand() function used in ANSI C. It has the parameters: s0 = 12345 si+1 ≡ 1103515245 si + 12345 mod 231, i = 0, 1. A common requirement of PRNGs is that they possess good statistical properties, meaning their output approximates a sequence of true random numbers.

On the other hand, hydrophobic BA stimulate the generation of ROS leading to a consumption of different antioxidants, including CoQ. Both scenarios led to a secondary CoQ deficiency.


One of the earliest public key cryptosystems (https://handworktime.ru/free/?key=1595). Published by Ralph Merkle and Martin Hellman in 1978.

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The face being the primary focus of attention in social interaction plays a major role in conveying identity and emotion. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and its performance when applied to face recognition. This algorithm creates a subspace (face space) where the faces in a database are represented using a reduced number of features called feature vectors. The PCA technique has also been used to identify various facial expressions such as happy, sad, neutral, anger, disgust, fear etc. Experimental results that follow show that PCA based methods provide better face recognition with reasonably low error rates. From the paper, we conclude that PCA is a good technique for face recognition as it is able to identify faces fairly well with varying illuminations, facial expressions etc.


Let’s look at another ciphertext: iq ifcc vqqr fb rdq vfllcq na rdq cfjwhwz hr bnnb hcc hwwhbsqvqbre hwq vhlq This does not seem to make too much sense and looks like decent cryptography. However, the substitution cipher is not secure at all! Let’s look at ways of breaking the cipher.

This is in particular attractive for the very long numbers occurring in public-key schemes

In a previous work, we have demonstrated a reduced plasmatic level of CoQ10 in mothers with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) as well as in an animal model, being the first report connecting CoQ10 deficiency to this disorder . Later, it was confirmed in another study, which analyzed fetal CoQ10 levels in cord blood from ICP mothers . It is well known that ICP is a high-risk pregnancy disease characterized by the accumulation of total serum bile acids, with an enhanced proportion of the hydrophobic bile acids which are highly cytotoxic. During the last decade, it was found many evidences suggesting that hydrophobic bile acids increase is responsible for the higher oxidative stress observed in ICP [51, 52, 53]. Thus, it was reasonable to suspect that CoQ10 levels could be diminished, secondary to the oxidative stress and/or mediated by a metabolic feedback . Furthermore, a depleted CoQ9 levels (the predominant form of ubiquinone in rodents) was also observed in plasma, brain and muscle in a cholestatic rat model together with a positive correlation between CoQ9 and ursodeoxycholic/lithocholic acid ratio (UDCA/LCA). The latter suggests that increased plasma LCA may be closely related to CoQ9 decrease in blood and tissues .


Mathematical Aspects of Modern Algebraic Cryptography

Some cryptographers had emphasized the importance of including an authentication method, and hence two further profiles were also included to deal with ciphers that also provide authentication. A total of 34 candidates were submitted to eSTREAM. At the end of the project four software-oriented (“Profile 1”) ciphers were found to have desirable properties: HC-128, Rabbit, Salsa20/12 and SOSEMANUK.

Similar to cashing-out, Localbitcoins.com also sell virtual money to a physical person directly in exchange of real money. It is the easiest way but not very convenient for large amounts. An alternative is to use a one-shot mule(s) to cash-out money from an official exchange such as VirCurEx. Either way, crypto currencies are opening new ground for criminals and terrorists to cash-out legal tender anonymously.


Power is a critical factor for working of hand held devices. The video applications are one of the widely used functionality of hand held devices and are prime factor for deciding the usability of product. These video applications are consists of complex algorithmic operations which depend on codec used for video. Because of difference in complexity these codecs, the power consumption is also different. The work presented here analyzes the power consumption for different video codec for same video on Android device. It gives the better view of power consumption for the device running on battery as power model used for calculation computes the power consumed in mAh unit. The results show that the video codecs in descending order of their power consumption are DivX, MPEG 4, H 264, and Xvid.

Special thanks to Daehyun for helping with examples and some advanced LATEX work, and to Markus for his help with problems. Olga Paustjan’s help with artwork and typesetting is also very much appreciated. An earlier generation of doctoral students from our group — Sandeep Kumar, Kerstin Lemke-Rust, Andy Rupp, Kai Schramm, and Marko Wolf — helped to create an online course that covered similar material. Their work was very useful and was a great inspiration when writing the book. Bart Preneel’s willingness to provide the Foreword is a great honor for us and we would like to thank him at this point again. Last but not least, we thank the people from Springer for their support and encouragement. In particular, thanks to our editor Ronan Nugent and to Alfred Hofmann.


In round i it takes the right half Ri−1 of the output of the previous round and the current round key ki as input. The output of the f -function is used as an XOR-mask for encrypting the left half input bits Li−1.

Definition 4/3.1 Group A group is a set of elements G together with an operation ◦ which combines two elements of G. A group has the following properties: 1. The group operation ◦ is closed. That is, for all a, b, ∈ G, it holds that a ◦ b = c ∈ G. 2. The group operation is associative.


Inverse MixColumn Sublayer After the addition of the subkey, the inverse MixColumn step is applied to the state (again, the exception is the first decryption round). In order to reverse the MixColumn operation, the inverse of its matrix must be used. The input is a 4-byte column of the State C which is multiplied by the inverse 4 × 4 matrix. The matrix contains constant entries.

Thus, somewhat ironically, public-key cryptography is rarely used for the actual encryption of data

Most number sets we are used to, such as the set of natural numbers or the set of real numbers, are infinite. In the following we introduce modular arithmetic, which is a simple way of performing arithmetic in a finite set of integers. Let’s look at an example of a finite set of integers from everyday life: Example 1/4.


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Frequent itemset mining over dynamic data is an important problem in the context of knowledge discovery and data mining. Various data stream models are being used for mining frequent itemsets. In a data stream model the data arrive at high speed such that the algorithms used for mining data streams must process them in strict constraint of time and space. Due to emphasis over recent data and its bounded memory requirement, sliding window model is a widely used model for mining frequent itemset over data stream. In this paper we proposed an algorithm named Variable-Moment for mining both frequent and closed frequent itemset over data stream. The algorithm is appropriate for noticing latest or new changes in the set of frequent itemset by making its window size variable, which is determined dynamically based on the extent of concept drift occurring within the arriving data stream. The size of window expands when there is no concept drift in the arriving data stream and size shrinks when there is a concept change. The relative support instead of absolute support is being used for making the concept of variable window effective. The algorithm uses an in-memory data structure to store frequent itemsets. Data structure gets updated whenever a batch of transaction is added or deleted from the sliding window to output exact frequent itemsets.

This paper proposes design of a Wireless Sensor Network using MiWi Wireless Modules, MICROCHIP MCU PIC18F97J60 Microcontroller under a Lab VIEW 8/5 platform and a series of temperature sensor to sensor nodes are implemented. The system was tested in the laboratory environment using temperature sensor need to be replaced with 0 to 3/3 volt analog. Both tested and simulation reports are presented.


Length of the key

There is an emerging consensus that the best practical approach to quantum security is to evolve current security applications and packet-based communication protocols towards adopting post-quantum public key cryptography. Software or firmware implementations of post-quantum cryptography should be easier to develop, deploy and maintain, have lower lifecycle support costs, and have better understood security threats than QKD-based solutions.

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The main purpose of this research work is to evaluate and analyze the behavior of Zigbee network topologies of wireless sensor networks. This paper investigates the impact of varying the number and speed of mobile nodes in Zigbee network using star, tree and mesh topologies. The functionality of star, tree and mesh topologies on the basis of packet delivery ratio, throughput and number of hops, media access control delay and end to end delay has been examined. The result show better performances of tree topology, which provides better packet delivery ratio and throughput. As the mobile nodes increases in tree topology the media access control delay and end to end delay decreases to lesser extent but there is no effect on number of hops it remain same.


At this same institution, he has covered post-doc positions since 2006 and has been nominated Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry since 2008. His major research interests cover biochemistry and neuroscience fields, including cerebral malaria and nanomedicine.

Robotics industry has replaced human efforts gradually in performing rather difficult tasks. A very pertinent aspect of an intelligent security robot is to reach the goal safely by avoiding unknown obstacles in an unknown environment. In this paper we have developed an embedded C program code to design an intelligent robot which can overcome the obstacles coming in its way. We have made use of three infrared sensors to detect the obstacles via the infrared communication technique. The infrared transmitter sends out infrared radiation in a direction which consequently bounces back on coming across the surface of an object and thereafter is picked up by the infrared receiver. Authors have applied a multi sensor integration technique to sense the obstacles using an LED based infrared transmitter and receiver module integrated with the 8051 micro controller which permits collision free navigation of robots.


Bile acids (BA) are steroid compounds, hydroxyl derivatives of 5β-cholan-24 oic acid. Primary BA are cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA); secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), all of them in 3α-position, and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydroxyl derivative in 3β-position (Figure 1) .

If the verification fails for any of the pairs (x1, y1 ), (x2, y2 ), we go back to beginning of Phase II and increment the key kR again and continue with the search. Let’s briefly discuss how many plaintext–ciphertext pairs we will need to rule out faulty keys with a high likelihood.


Note that we get a different equation for every value of i. Moreover, the equations are linearly independent. With this knowledge, Oscar can generate m equations for the first m values of i: i = 0, i = 1.

Foretelling the Future Of course, predicting the future tends to be tricky: We can’t really foresee new technical or theoretical developments with certainty. As you can imagine, it is very hard to know what kinds of computers will be available in the year 2030. For medium-term predictions, Moore’s Law is often assumed. Roughly speaking, Moore’s Law states that computing power doubles every 18 months while the costs stay constant.


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Proliferation of GPGPU and other accelerators, is making the industry consider accelerator based systems as a viable option for high-performance: low-power HPC systems. This paper describes a multi-accelerator heterogeneous cluster in which each node has GPGPU and FPGA cards.

UDCA reduces the content of cholesterol in the bile by reducing the hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and its absorption by the gut itself. In addition to solubilizing the cholesterol into micelles, it causes the cholesterol to scatter into liquid crystals in an aqueous medium causing a favorable environment for the dissolution of biliary stones. In addition to this, reduces the viscosity and improves the bile flow.


This paper compares the performance of conventional adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) network and extreme-ANFIS on regression problems. ANFIS networks incorporate the explicit knowledge of the fuzzy systems and learning capabilities of neural networks. The proposed new learning technique overcomes the slow learning speed of the conventional learning techniques like neural networks and support vector machines (SVM) without sacrificing the generalization capability. The structure of extreme-ANFIS network is similar to the conventional ANFIS which combines the fuzzy logic's qualitative approach and neural network's adaptive capability. As in the case of extreme learning machines (ELM), the first layer parameters of the proposed learning machine are not tuned. Performance on two regression problems shows that extreme-ANFIS provides better generalization capability and faster learning speed.

This paper proposes a new technique for 3D object retrieval using skeletons of objects' orthographic projections. The proposed method exploits the 2D multi-views wherein silhouettes are obtained for different viewpoints for each model. A feature vector is extracted for the skeleton of each viewpoint of an image obtained by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution (DCE). The vectors are further trained in a matrix for pairwise comparison. The experimental results have been given by conducting experiments on the Princeton Shape-Benchmark (PSB), a publicly available database of 3D models. The obtained results are quite encouraging in terms of accuracy.


Cybersecurity and Cyberwar - Free Download PDF Ebook. When the message is received, the recipient will use their private key to extract the. I think the first and third sentences of this paragraph are completely mistaken. Most public key cryptosystems assign keys on a per-session basis, which is inconvenient for the Internet since IP is connectionless. Cryptography Review Question 10 What type of information would you have for a Ciphertext. This is a dataset of the all-time top 1, 000 posts, from the top 2, 500 subreddits by subscribers, pulled from reddit between August 15–20, 2020 - umbrae/reddit-top-2.5-million. In contrast to the threat quantum computing poses to current public-key algorithms, most current symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are considered to be relatively secure against attacks by quantum computers. Text, Chapter 9 Thinking Security, Chapter 7 Password security: a case history, Robert Morris and Ken Thompson, Communications of the ACM, Volume 22, Issue 11. What measures can be taken against attacks on cryptosystems by quantum computers? GCHQ was originally established after the First World War as the Government Code and Cypher School. When NSA first got involved with public-key cryptography, in helping IBM to develop what became DES (which of course was widely adopted for on-line cryptography), many suspected them of deliberately inserting a backdoor into the mysterious Feistel S-boxes, but AFAIK no evidence strongly supporting that possibility has been openly published; to the contrary, the evidence suggests that they. Once an exploit is coded into a worm, the chance of a compromised host having been compromised by the worm (instead of a human who targets it specifically) approaches 100%.

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Steganography is the method of hiding any secret information like password, text, and image, audio behind original cover file. In this paper we proposed the audio-video cryptosteganography which is the combination of image steganography and audio steganography using computer forensics technique as a tool for authentication. Our aim is to hide secret information behind image and audio of video file. As video is the application of many still frames of images and audio, we can select any frame of video and audio for hiding our secret data. Suitable algorithm such as 4LSB is used for image steganography and phase coding algorithm for audio steganography. Suitable parameter ofsecurity and authentication like PSNR, histogram are obtained at receiver and transmitter side which are exactly identical, hence data security can be increased. This paper focus the idea of computer forensics technique and its use of video steganography in both investigative and security manner.


Quantum attacks on public-key cryptosystems pdf

Through the last decade, many spatio- temporal access methods are developed. The goal of this paper is to outline the advance of the indexing methods in the previous years as well as to make review of all as a comparative study.

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In lip reading, selection of feature play crucial role. Goal of this work is to compare the common feature extraction modules. Proposed two stage feature extraction technique is exceedingly discriminative, precised and computation efficient. We have used, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to decorrelate spectral information and extract only the salient visual speech information from lip portion. In the second stage the Locality Sensitive Discriminant Analysis (LSDA) is used to further trim down the feature dimension while preserving the required identifiable ability. A competent feature extraction module result a novel automatic lip reading system. We have compared performance of classical Naive Bayes with the popular SVM classifier. The CUAVE database is used for experimentation and performance comparison. Experimental results show that DWT+LSDA feature mining is better than DWT with PCA or LDA. The performance of Naïve Bayes classifier is exceedingly augmented with DWT+LSDA.


Public key cryptosystem pdf

In current research on high-efficiency video coding (HEVC), motion vector resolution is always fixed to 1/4 pixel for the entire video sequence. Inter-coding with a fixed motion vector resolution can decrease the coding efficiency because the statistical properties of the local image are not considered. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision scheme for motion vector resolution to improve the coding efficiency. The proposed scheme capitalizes on the tendency for a high-pel-precision level to be beneficial in terms of coding efficiency as the coding unit (CU) depth decreases. Also, we determined the strength with a rate-distortion (RD) cost and selected a predefined threshold set per slice level. Simulation results with respect to HM7/0 show that the proposed scheme provides a coding gain of 2/4% for a low-delay structure. Moreover, it was found that the average encoding time is reduced by 5%. The proposed scheme can also improve the coding efficiency at a slightly increased encoding time compared to conventional methods.

The evolution of Software Defined Networking (SDN) and network virtualization changed the future networking paradigm. Network virtualization is the key element in cloud-aware networks. OpenFlow allows the separation of the control plane from forward plane, which provides the flexibility of dynamic network programming. The Open vSwitch is an OpenFlow based open source switch implementation which is used as a virtual switch in virtualized environments. The OpenFlow specifications are targeted for Layer2 and layer3 functionality. The latest networking shift is to enable the switch with L4-L7 services like load balancers, proxies, firewalls, IPSec etc. This would make the middle boxes redundant in the networking deployments. In this work, we propose a methodology to extend the most commonly used Open vSwitch to L4-L7 service aware OpenFlow switch.


As in the OFB and CFB modes, the key stream is computed in a blockwise fashion. The input to the block cipher is a counter which assumes a different value every time the block cipher computes a new key stream block.

Neither are ciphers which only perform diffusion. However, through the concatenation of such operations, a strong cipher can be built. The idea of concatenating several encryption operation was also proposed by Shannon. Such ciphers are known as product ciphers.


Block ciphers similar to or like RSA

Additionally assuming reusable malicious designated-verifier NIZK arguments for NP (MDV-NIZKs), we give the first MDV-NIZK for QMA that only requires one copy of the quantum witness. Finally, we perform a preliminary investigation into two-round secure quantum computation where each party must obtain output. On the negative side, we identify a broad class of simulation strategies that suffice for classical two-round secure computation that are unlikely to work in the quantum setting. Next, as a proof-of-concept, we show that two-round secure quantum computation exists with respect to a quantum oracle.

In recent years, Visible Light Communication has generated worldwide interest in the field of wireless communication because of its low cost and secure data exchange. However VLC suffers from serious drawbacks which degrade the communication performance. One of the major problems faced by any VLC system is the interference caused by ambient light noise, deteriorating the performance of the system. In this paper we propose an AVR based model to mitigate the ambient light noise interference and discuss its effectiveness. Further we have discussed other difficulties of VLC system.


This is because DES is based on a Feistel network. Figure 3/13 shows a block diagram for DES decryption.

Indeed, all you then need is a string that produces the correct hash and you're in! The interesting story of how engineers at Ford Motor Co. invented the superconducting quantum interference device, or SQUID. For instance, RSA's security relies on the assumption that 1024-bit integers are impossible to factor with today's available computing resources and number theory advances, although it has not yet been proven that any function exists for which no such. Math - useful math materials in cryptographic context. Major attacks occur when implementations of current encryption technologies do not faithfully comply with their specifications, or when bugs and flaws sometimes deliberately - arise at code level183, 184. Cache timing attacks, t a-c Side-channel attacks versus theoretical attacks According to the traditional principles of cryptography, many experts would consider the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher, or its Chinese equivalent, SMS-4 to be broken if someone found a statistical attack that could recover a 128-bit key using less than 2128 encryptions. It provides the best compatibility of all algorithms but requires the key size to be larger to provide sufficient security. To facilitate the transition, the US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) is running a standardization process. Key management scheme for secure IP communication, specifically for IPsec, and designed by Aziz and Diffie. Puncturable encryption (PE), proposed by Green and Miers at IEEE S&P 2020, is a kind of public key encryption that allows recipients to revoke individual messages by repeatedly updating decryption. Although Quantum computers are not yet in action, we have seen evidence of the NSA's practical ability to crack some cryptography standards available today with its $11 billion-per-year budget dedicated to "groundbreaking cryptanalytic. In an economy and society that thrives from and depends on the proliferation of free and secure access to.


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In many real world environment, a wireless sensor node may have to gather different types of data obtained from a variety of sensors. Each of the data may have different priorities to be processed. Often, real time traffic could be one of the data to be handeled by the sensor node and to be successfully transmitted to the sink node. Therefore, rate control in wireless sensor node (WSN) plays a pivotal role. In this paper, we present a priority based rate control algorithm to take care of different data. The input traffic consists of real time as well as non-real time traffic data. The performance of the algorithms has been found to be superior to the algorithm proposed by Yaghmaee et al. with respect to throughput, delay, and loss.

James bond quantum of solace game crack

K n into itself with invertible decomposition. I came across a short and poignant talk by mathematician Arthur Benjamin's on his formula for changing math education. Books; Lectures and educational courses; Online. The cryptosystems based on the Integer. It is physically impossible for speeds to keep doubling as you imagine. By an unfortunate coincidence, the public-key codes that they can crack include most of what we currently use to secure the Internet: RSA, Diffie-Hellman, elliptic curve crypto, etc. Intelligence Community and their partners. Overview of post-quantum public-key cryptosystems for key exchange Annabell Kuldmaa Supervised by Ahto Truu December 15, 2020 Abstract In this report we review four post-quantum cryptosystems: the ring learning with errors key exchange, the supersingular isogeny key exchange, the NTRU and the McEliece cryptosystem. More than two hundred end-of-chapter exercises help the student to solidify lessons learned in each chapter. Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on. Implementation of a elgamal key encapsulation mechanism springerlink. So I went looking for captivating podcasts and of course ended up at the TED site, where you can download any number of interesting speakers and topics.


Later in this book we will learn methods for establishing keys over insecure channels. In any case, the key has only to be transmitted once between Alice and Bob and can then be used for securing many subsequent communications. One important and also counterintuitive fact in this situation is that both the encryption and the decryption algorithms are publicly known. It seems that keeping the encryption algorithm secret should make the whole system harder to break.

Aion attack speed hack

In this paper, we apply social network analytic methods to unveil the structural dynamics of a popular open source goal oriented IRC community, Ubuntu. The primary objective is to track the development of this ever growing community over time using a social network lens and examine the dynamically changing participation patterns of people. Specifically, our research seeks out to investigate answers to the following question: How can the communication dynamics help us in delineating important substructures in the IRC network? This gives an insight into how open source learning communities function internally and what drives the exhibited IRC behavior. By application of a consistent set of social network metrics, we discern factors that affect people's embeddedness in the overall IRC network, their structural influence and importance as discussion initiators or responders. Deciphering these informal connections are crucial for the development of novel strategies to improve communication and foster collaboration between people conversing in the IRC channel, there by stimulating knowledge flow in the network. Our approach reveals a novel network skeleton, that more closely resembles the behavior of participants interacting online. We highlight bottlenecks to effective knowledge dissemination in the IRC, so that focused attention could be provided to communities with peculiar behavioral patterns.


Social Media is being used as a key platform by advertisers to improve business by providing targeted and personalized advertising. There exist a trade-off between productivity in advertising and invasion of user's privacy in the existing approaches. Due to these privacy concerns, there were many law suits filed against the Beacon advertising model used by Facebook resulting in its discontinuation. The new approaches need to address targeted audience while preserving the privacy in order to build appropriate revenue model for their operations. In this paper we propose an innovative model that leverage the trade-off. The model effectively interacts with user's linked data present in the web structured format, retrieve it and integrate data from marketing partners. Then it broadcasts the advertisement in social graph with flexible sentences For targeted advertising and privacy our model maintains interaction records among users in virtual containers for finding tie-strength and also active friends 1 by Association Rules Mining [ARM] algorithm. We applied and validated our approach using a real data set obtained from 506 active social media users.

In most cases, they have either practical drawbacks, such as very long keys (sometimes in the range of several megabytes), or the cryptographic strength is not well understood. Since about 2005, there has been growing interest in the cryptographic community in such asymmetric schemes. This is in part motivated by the fact that no quantum computing attacks (https://handworktime.ru/free/?key=9386) are currently known against these four families of alternative asymmetric schemes. This is in contrast to RSA, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve schemes and their variants, which are all vulnerable to attacks using quantum computers . Even though it is not clear whether quantum computers will ever exist (the most optimistic estimates state that they are still several decades away), the alternative public-key algorithms are at times collectively referred to as post-quantum cryptography. A recent book and a new workshop series [36, 35] provide more information about this area of active research.


With this notation, we obtain an elegant mathematical description for the feedback path. If we multiply the output of flip-flop i by its coefficient pi, the result is either the output value if pi = 1, which corresponds to a closed switch, or the value zero if pi = 0, which corresponds to an open switch. The values of the feedback coefficients are crucial for the output sequence produced by the LFSR.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is recognized as high data rate transmission technique. Further, application of space-time block coding (STBC) to the OFDM system may help in combating severe affects of fading. In this paper, space time block encoded time frequency training OFDM (TFT-OFDM) system is proposed. The TFT-OFDM signal is trained in both time and frequency domain by appending the training sequence and by inserting the grouped pilots, respectively. Such structure of signal helps in providing better spectral efficiency and reliability. The performance of proposed system is analyzed over fast fading channel and compared with various STBC based OFDM transmission schemes. These various STBC-based OFDM transmission techniques are STBC-based cyclic prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM), STBC-based zero padding OFDM (ZP-OFDM), and STBC-based time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM). Simulation results indicate that the STBC-based TFT-OFDM is better than other STBC-based OFDM transmission techniques in BER performance.


StarPU is a popular open source runtime that supports heterogeneous architectures. This paper describes the key features of heterogeneous runtime and how StarPU has been adapted to execute parallel programs which span across both GPGPU and FPGA accelerators.

The aim of this paper is to describe an algorithm to recognize Assamese handwritten numerals using mathematical morphology. The digits are classified into two groups. One group contains digits which contains one or more blobs or/and stems in its structure. The other group does not contain any blobs. The number of blobs is determined with the help of morphological boundary finding method considering the property as hole. We also use the concept called `connected component' of morphology to recognize digits without blobs. Digits without blobs are extended to blobs by using connected component approach of morphology. Digits with blobs and stems need to recognize the number of stems. The present study shows that stems need not to be exactly vertical or horizontal to detect it. The proposed algorithm has been applied and tested for various handwritten digits from ISI Kolkata database. We also compare this algorithm for various printed Assamese digits.


Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) have significantly enhanced the wireless networks as they eliminate the need for fixed infrastructure and are easily deployable. Apart from their application for communication purposes, these are increasingly being used for expanding the computing capabilities of existing cellular mobile systems and for the implementation of mobile computing grids. Therefore, a fault tolerance technique is crucial in order to effectively utilize the computing potential of the network. Rollback recovery has been widely used to achieve fault tolerance in distributed networks; yet its application is not trivial in a MANET due to limited availability of stable storage, node mobility and frequent network partitioning. The paper presents a rollback recovery protocol for MANETs which addresses these challenges by using opportunistic routing. Since all nodes may not have enough stable storage, the nodes with sufficient availability of stable storage are distinguished as Checkpoint Storage Nodes (CSNs). Opportunistic contacts between mobile nodes are used, firstly, for locating Checkpoint Storage Nodes in the network and subsequently, for retrieving the last saved checkpoint of a failed node from a CSN at the time of recovery.

There are only three major families of public-key algorithms which are of practical relevance

Subject: Development of protein arrays to research and validate oncoproteins in bladder cancer \n2007-2008: Postgraduate Fellow, Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino. Subject: proteomic identification and validation of new prognostic markers in neuroectodermal tumors \n2004-2006: Postgraduate Fellow, Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino.


In a large Wireless Sensor Network, power efficiency of sensor node is one of the most important factor. Nowadays, WSN based solution have been used widely and is getting pervasively deployed in various applications. Long time operating capability with efficient energy management plays very important role for a sensor node. In this article, the sensor intelligence has been emerged with a low power processor model. Sensor node within a single chip has been developed and implemented on a high performance FPGA kit. Xilinx ISE 14/3 simulator has been used to design the processor model in VHDL code. An efficient sleep scheduling with a synchronized timer and algorithm to achieve optimum power efficiency has been adopted in this design. Realization up to RTL schematic level has been performed and results power efficiency of almost 90% compared to commercially available microcontroller based sensor.

Symmetric-key tweakable block cipher designed as part of the Skein hash function, an entry in the NIST hash function competition. Garbage in garbage out on a massive scale. This may be made easier by a predictable message structure. In this case, the receiver's e-mail address is the pointer to the public key in the sender's keyring; in fact, the same message can be sent to multiple recipients and the message will not be significantly longer since all that needs to be added is the session key encrypted by each receiver's public key. It compares favourably with current public-key cryptosystems based on logarithm, which would collapse under quantum computing attacks. It is very hard to find pedagogical resources on this topic that many educators urgently need. It is physically impossible for speeds to. Complete list of leaks revealed in 2020. Penetration Testing Bootcamp. Public-key cryptosystems form a critical aspect of our secrecy. SDK for connecting to AWS IoT from a device using embedded C. virtio-win/kvm-guest-drivers.


Stacking Ensemble is a collective frame work having strategies to combine the predictions of learned classifiers to generate predictions as new instances occur. In early research it has been proved that a stacking ensemble is usually more accurate than any other single-component classifier. Many ensemble methods are proposed, but still it is a difficult task to find the suitable ensemble configuration. Meta-heuristic methods can be used as a solution to find optimized configurations. Genetic algorithms, Ant Colony algorithms are some popular approaches on which current researches are going on. This paper is about meta-heuristic approaches used so far for the optimization of stacking configuration and what work can be done in the future to overcome the shortcomings of existing techniques. Particle swarm optimization based stacking ensemble framework can be applied to get better results. A number of studies, comparison and experiments are presented by extracting from a large no of references.

The word Sudoku means `the digits must remain single'. The Sudoku problem is important as it finds numerous applications in a variety of research domains with some sort of resemblance. Applications of solving a Sudoku instance are found in the fields of Steganography, Secret image sharing with necessary reversibility, Encrypting SMS, Digital watermarking, Image authentication, Image Encryption, and so and so forth. All the existing Sudoku solving techniques are primarily guess based heuristic or computation intensive soft computing methodology. They are all cell based, that is why very much time consuming. Therefore, in this paper a minigrid based novel technique is developed to solve the Sudoku puzzle in guessed free manner.


Why Are Encryption and Decryption the Same Function? The reason for the similarity of the encryption and decryption function can easily be shown. We must prove that the decryption function actually produces the plaintext bit xi again.

The morphologic features of cholestasis are dependent on the severity, duration, and the underlying cause. Cholestasis is classified as intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholestasis depending on the cause that leads to impaired bile flow. Intrahepatic cholestasis is due to a disease affecting the hepatocytes and/or the intrahepatic bile ducts, whereas extrahepatic cholestasis or obstructive cholestasis results from the obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary ducts.


In recent years, wireless communication technology has reduced the distance between people and has hence become a significant part of our lives. Two such technologies are WiFi(IEEE 802/11) and WiMAX(IEEE 802/16) where the latter is a long range system covering many kilometers, whereas former is a synonym for WLAN providing a coverage of only short ranges. This work describes the implementation of a framework in which a multi-hop, ad-hoc network is deployed with hybrid nodes to enhance network throughput. The data traffic received is split between the WiFi and WiMAX radios on the basis of th e split coefficient value statically. The routing algorithm being implemented in this paper is the be e-hive algorithm. Bee-hive algorithm is a multi-path routing algorithm inspired by the social behavior of swarms of bees. It is dynamic, robust and flexible yet simple algorithm which can prove helpful for optimal management of available network resources. In this paper, we have split data traffic over two radio channels for achieving enhanced performance and reduced delay.

Authenticated Encryption (AE) uses block ciphers to both encrypt and generate a MAC in order to provide confidentiality and authentication, respectively. In addition to the GCM introduced in this chapter, other AE modes include the EAX mode, OCB mode, and GC mode. Another application is the Cryptographically Secure Pseudo Random Number Generators (CSPRNG) built from block ciphers. In fact, the stream cipher modes introduced in this chapter, OFB, CFB and CTR mode, form CSPRNGs.


A Single-Key Attack on the Full GOST Block Cipher

As in the case for the CBC mode, the IV should be a nonce. One advantage of the OFB mode is that the block cipher computations are independent of the plaintext. Hence, one can precompute one or several blocks si of key stream material.

Another difficulty in using one-time pad is the need to share the one-time pad prior to communication. The one-time pad can be shared prior to communication by physically delivering a copy of the one-time pad. Distribution of a one-time pad to many users may risk the loss or duplication of one copy of the one-time pad, nullifying the secrecy of the encryption.


In summary, the meet-in-themiddle attack reduces the effective key length of triple encryption from 3 κ to 2 κ

As in the case for the CBC and OFB modes, the IV should be a nonce. A variant of the CFB mode can be used in situations where short plaintext blocks are to be encrypted. Let’s use the encryption of the link between a (remote) keyboard and a computer as an example.

In summary, a key size of 56 bits is too short to encrypt confidential data nowadays. Hence, single DES should only be used for applications where only short-term security is needed — say, a few hours — or where the value of the encrypted data is very low. However, variants of DES, in particular 3DES, are still secure.


In today's online world users are suffering with the problem of information overload. To handle this problem, recommender systems assist users in giving required information by filtering out irrelevant information. So, most of the recommender systems mainly strive to achieve only accuracy in recommendations but this is not just what users want. Users require more coverage and diversity in recommendations mainly in the case of news domain which is highly dynamic in nature. To handle the issues of coverage and diversity we have worked on proactive predictions of those user interests which could not have been predicted by just user behavior analysis. User interest has been expanded on the basis of Concepts, sub concepts, entities, properties and relationships stored in our designed news domain ontology. Ontology design is based on news industry standards and careful study of the domain. It is also semantically annotated with context sensitive knowledge, extracted from external knowledge source DBpedia.

Complete Encryption, Compression, RFID & Smart Card Info

We discuss the Feistel network in the following. After the initial bitwise permutation IP of a 64-bit plaintext x, the plaintext is split into two halves L0 and R0. These two 32-bit halves are the input to the Feistel network, which consists of 16 rounds. The right half Ri is fed into the function f. The output of the f function is XORed (as usually denoted by the symbol ⊕) with the left 32-bit half Li. Finally, the right and left half are swapped. This process repeats in the next round and can be expressed as: Li = Ri−1, Ri = Li−1 ⊕ f (Ri−1, ki ) where i= 1 ,16. After round 16, the 32-bit halves L16 and R16 are swapped again, and the final permutation IP−1 is the last operation of DES. As the notation suggests, the final permutation IP−1 is the inverse of the initial permutation IP. In each round, a round key ki is derived from the main 56-bit key using what is called the key schedule. It is crucial to note that the Feistel structure really only encrypts (decrypts) half of the input bits per each round, namely the left half of the input. The right half is copied to the next round unchanged. In particular, the right half is not encrypted with the f function. In order to get a better understanding of the working of Feistel cipher, the following interpretation is helpful: Think of the f function as a pseudorandom generator with the two input parameters Ri−1 and ki. The output of the pseudorandom generator is then used to encrypt the left half Li−1 with an XOR operation.


It is likely best to maintain an OpenSSH-compatible copy of your host keys and use a converter to generate the TinySSH variant. The current converter requires Python 3 (avoid the older, C-based key converter).

Schnorr's signature scheme permits an elegant threshold signing protocol due to its linear signing equation. However each new signature consumes fresh randomness, which can be a major attack vector in practice.


An automatic segmentation and color feature based video object tracking algorithm has been proposed. The proposed algorithm automatically segments the moving object in video by creating a multiplicative mask, which contains reduced number of shadowed pixels, noisy pixels and false pixels. The segmented object can be tracked by extracting its features such as color. Once the object to be tracked is segmented and its feature extracted, the position of the moving object is predicted using Kalman filter which is an optimal recursive estimator. Kalman Filter efficiently tracks the moving object in real time applications. The proposed algorithm accurately segments the moving object by reducing the effect of the shadowing and/or noisy pixels and successfully tracks the moving object.

Method of securely exchanging cryptographic keys over a public channel and was one of the first public-key protocols as conceived by Ralph Merkle and named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. One of the earliest practical examples of public key exchange implemented within the field of cryptography.


From AI and data science to cryptography: Microsoft

The discussion concerning virtual and digital currencies, as well as mobile payments bring up many questions about the future of money, three of which I will focus on now. The first is what will money look like in the future? If it is to have a “look” that is. When the European Union decided to standardize all member currencies to the euro the New York Times ran a series about the expiring country-specific currencies. For example, Italy gave up the lira and Germany gave up its mark. For many countries, currency is an official mode of communicating national pride in the culture, from accomplishments to national heroes, money is where we highlighted the very best our country had to offer. It was difficult for many European Union member states to give that up. In fact, England has refused to do so, arguing that it would devalue their economy. It was interesting to me that when I visited Ireland shortly after the euro change and looked closely at the euro coins in my hand I noticed the countries had played their own little trick against complete homogeneity. On the Irish euro was the harp, a national symbol and on another euro coin, was the wise owl, symbol of Greece. The coins all said euro and community, but the images shouted out nation-state and independence.

Cloud computing provides computing resources on demand. It is a promising solution for utility computing. Increasing number of cloud service providers having similar functionality poses a problem to cloud users of its selection. To assist the users, for selection of a best service provider as per user's requirement, it is necessary to create a solution. User may provide its QoS expectation and service providers may also express the offers. Experience of existing users may also be beneficial in selection of best cloud service provider. This paper identifies QoS metrics and defines it in such a way that user and provider both can express their expectation and offers respectively into quantified form. A dynamic and flexible framework using Ranked Voting Method is proposed which takes requirement of user as an input and provides a best provider as output.


A blockchain behind cryptocurrencies is a public ledger, which is used to store the history of every transaction that cannot be tampered or changed. This makes the transactions secure and safer than the existing systems. But some blockchains do not use any cryptocurrency or tokens. So, it varies significantly that depends on the type of blockchain. In this chapter, we have described the functionality of some cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, ETH, XRP, LTC, USDT, BCH, LIBRA, XMR, EOS, BSV, and many others.

To better understand FT in Cloud Computing, it is essential to understand the different types of faults. In this paper, we highlight the basic concepts of fault tolerance by understanding the different FT policies like Reactive FT policy and Proactive FT policy and the associated FT techniques used on different types of faults. A study on various fault tolerant methods, algorithms, frameworks etc, has been carried out which are developed and implemented by research experts in this field. This is an area where lot of research is happening and these studies will guide us to build a robust FT technique in Cloud.


IT 223 Midterm Review study guide by razai3 includes 557 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. We're upgrading the ACM DL, and would like your input. Suppose that you want to crack someone's password, where the hash of the password is stored on the server. The aim of SDIWC digital library is to deliver a free full text access to published papers of SDIWC and other organizations. Length Scales involved and effect on properties: Mechanical, Electronic, Optical, Magnetic and Thermal. Other Public-Key Cryptosystems Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement, Man-in-Middle Attack on Diffie-Hellman, ElGamal Cryptography, ElGamal Cryptography Example, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Elliptic Curves over Real Numbers, Finite Elliptic Curves, Finite Elliptic Curve Example, ECC Diffie-Hellman, ECC Encryption/Decryption, ECC Security, PRNG based on. Fri, 06 May 2020 21: 11: 56 UTC Friday Squid Blogging: Firefly Squid in the News. The quantum algorithm to the cryptanalysis of the stream cipher Trivum, the block cipher AES, the hash function SHA-3/Keccak, and the multivariate public key cryptosystems, and show that they are secure under quantum algebraic attack only if the condition numbers of the corresponding equation systems are large. Regards, Zooko Wilcox-O'Hearn. Table of Contents Physics Articles Physics Tutorials Physics Guides Physics FAQ Math Articles Math Tutorials Math Guides Math FAQ Education Articles Education Guides Bio/Chem Articles Technology Guides Computer Science Tutorials. Al-Dahoud, is an associated professor at Al-Zaytoonah University, Amman, Jordan. ISBN - Get FREE shipping offers and dollar off coupons with our price comparison for Quantum Attacks on Public Key Cryptosystems - ISBN, X.

this correspondent will need to import your public key into his own keyring

This theorem implies that there are, for instance, finite fields with 11 elements, or with 81 elements (since 81 = 34 ) or with 256 elements (since 256 = 28, and 2 is a prime). However, there is no finite field with 12 elements since 12 = 22 · 3, and 12 is thus not a prime power. In the remainder of this section we look at how finite fields can be built, and more importantly for our purpose, how we can do arithmetic in them.


Furthermore, its elevation may reflect enzyme induction by drugs or alcohol. Serum 5′-nucleotidase, an enzyme located in canalicular membranes and lining the sinusoids is also elevated in cholestasis, although it appears to be less sensitive than alkaline phosphatase. Serum elevation of hepatic enzymes is accompanied by increased serum bilirubin and bile acids. An increase in serum bile acids is an early marker of cholestasis.

Security Concepts - subspace field

Since the CFB mode forms a stream cipher, encryption and decryption are exactly the same operation. The CFB mode is an example of an asynchronous stream cipher (cf.


It may result from defects in intrahepatic production of bile, impairment of hepatic transmembrane transporters, or mechanical obstruction to bile flow. In cholestasis, hepatocytes are exposed to high levels of bile acids, particularly those bearing hydrophobic properties. The increase in bile acids induces oxidative stress, leading to an imbalance in the prooxidant:antioxidant ratio which determines the final cellular redox status.

This paper focus on the importance of Desktop Applications, to be known as standalone utilities, a well known application of which a new version has been developed using JavaFx. The paper, in sequence, will discuss about the need for desktop application in e-Aushadhi, use of XML files as database storage as well as for import/export of information. The paper will also discuss about JavaFx and its ability to create transaction and various other screens without using and web controls. The main aim is to let users identify the importance of desktop applications and the comparison between web and desktop applications.


Mobile robots have the capability to navigate in the environment. We need some approaches for their collision-free and stable navigation. Authors have given their own algorithm and have implemented in C- language to move a robot from initial to final position. They have also shown the comparison in path length required by robot with the model proposed by Sir Parhi et al. in 2009.

A prime example is the RSA public-key scheme, which can be broken by factoring large integers

Secrecy is one of the most important functions of computer science. Should electronic secrecy suddenly collapse into total transparency, we could not engage in electronic commerce, we would be unable to communicate privately, our past communications would be globally visible, and we would be critically impacted in myriad ways that would fundamentally change our ability to work and live. Consider the time we spend every day maintaining our secrecy with passwords, lock patterns, wireless fobs, and biometrics that restrict access to protect us and the ramifications of their failure.


Efficient Finite Field Multiplication for Isogeny Based

Readers will find many ideas for course projects, links to open-source software, test vectors, and much more information on contemporary cryptography. In addition, links to video lectures are provided.

Abandoned object detection is an essential requirement in many video surveillance contexts. We introduce an abandoned object detection tool based on a set of possible events and on a set of rules to act upon those events. This implementation is simple and reusable unlike existing techniques. It is implemented using a simple logical reasoning upon textual data, in contrast to image centric processing. Objects foreign to a usual environment are extracted using background subtraction. Results of blob detection and tagging process are passed to an abandoned object detector in a textual format. The abandoned object detector, which is an acyclic graph of asynchronously interconnected lightweight processing modules, evaluates the variations of speeds and inter-blob distances. By configuring several parameters according to the context, it generates an alert upon encountering such a scenario. We provide results of this implementation by applying it on PETS 2006 dataset.


Awesome Cryptography Papers Resources List

In this paper we describe the first improvement of the wire shuffling countermeasure against side-channel attacks described by Ishai, Sahai and Wagner at Crypto 2003. More precisely, we show how to get worst case statistical security against t probes with running time O(t) instead of O(t log t); our construction is also much simpler. Recall that the classical masking countermeasure achieves perfect security but with running time O(t^2). We also describe a practical implementation for AES that outperforms the masking countermeasure for t ≥ 6 000.

Toy attack hack 2020

In this paper, a new algorithm for surface reconstruction from their arbitrary perspective images is presented. An optimization formulation for such type of reconstruction problem, based on a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surface model is adopted. It converts reconstruction of a 3D surface into reconstruction of control points and weight vectors of a NURBS representation of the surface. Perspective invariance property of NURBS surface is used to formulate the 3D surface reconstruction problem as a nonlinear optimization problem. The fitting is obtained by solving a quadratic programming problem for finding the weight vectors of NURBS surface and then solving a system of linear equation for finding control points. A comparison study is shown in terms of various type of errors between proposed and triangulation based approach where point-to-point correspondence is required.


During the period from 2021 to 2021, blockchain has widely used in cryptocurrencies especially in currency transfer and digital payment. Nowadays, blockchain technology has emerged in various applications and services to make use of decentralization and immutability features.

With an increasing use of mobile and hand-held computing devices, there is a need for new algorithms for data and transaction management in mobile environments. Devices are becoming more and more computationally capable and in many cases power is no more a critical issue: for example, laptops, which can be charged time to time. The reliability of communication links is also not of concern. The bottleneck in many of these situations is turning out to be the communication bandwidth. In this work we present a mobile transaction management protocol, which employs a lazy commit strategy to minimize the bandwidth utilization and the frequency of communication. We defer the commit and lock release until some other device requests a conflicting lock or the user explicitly asks the system to commit the changes. This reduces the communication frequency and also the bandwidth usage. Simulation results show that, in terms of bandwidth usage, our protocol performs strictly better than an existing optimistic protocol for mobile transactions.


Uses of multimedia on video and audio application are increasing day-by-day on mobile devices. The continuity of these applications may hamper due to improper session rates during transmission. In this study we survey various papers for session rate prediction of streaming media using network traffic prediction methods. Also bandwidth estimation is carried out for the wireless network which plays a significant role in predicting the session rates. Our proposed session rate expression helps to understand the significance of predicting the session rate for streaming media in mobile wireless network. We study various proposals in this regard and the state-of-the-art analytical analysis is presented followed by our notations.

Given that with today’s technology even 256 DES operations require several days with special hardware, performing 288 encryptions is completely out of reach. Note that the number of plaintexts (which Oscar is not supposed to know in most circumstances) corresponds to 32 GByte of data, the collection of which is also a formidable task in most real-world situations. A particular attractive feature of key whitening is that the additional computational load is negligible. A typical block cipher implementation in software requires several hundred instructions for encrypting one input block. In contrast, a 64-bit XOR operation only takes 2 instructions on a 32-bit machine, so that the performance impact due to key whitening is in the range of 1% or less in most cases.


Post-quantum cryptosystem with public key. Minimum key size is 1024 bits, default is 3072 (see ssh-keygen(1)) and maximum is 16384. We present evidence for the strength of. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. As of 2020[update], this is not. I learned about the mathematics of RSA in 1985 as part of a cryptography. GE2023 FUNDAMENTAL OF NANOSCIENCE L T P C 3 0 0 3 UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Nanoscale Science and Technology- Implications for Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Engineering-Classifications of nanostructured materials- nano particles- quantum dots, nanowires-ultra-thinfilms-multilayered materials. Unfortunately this is the case for most well-known public key cryptosystems, including RSA, discrete logarithm based system like Diffie-Hellman and DSA, as well as elliptic curve systems. Of interest, a world open contest on electronics attacks was launched by the Complex Digital Electronics system team at the CHESS meeting. Government Communications Headquarters, commonly known as GCHQ, is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom. Please sign up to review new features, functionality and page designs. Fan, Y; Jiang, Y; Zhu, H; Shen, X. An efficient privacy-preserving scheme against traffic analysis attacks in network coding.

As can be seen in the figure, the leftmost word of a subkey W [4i], where i = 1, 10, is computed as: W [4i] = W [4(i − 1)] + g(W [4i − 1]). Here g() is a nonlinear function with a four-byte input and output.


You'll also be asked for a key length: you should choose the maximum, currently 4096 bits. Note that to get N bytes worth of keylength security, you need to choose keylength 2N. This is relevant to deciding how large a keyspace you want to force a "brute strength" attacker to search. Choosing the maximum keylength increases the time to encrypt/decrypt, but you should hardly notice the difference for encrypted personal messages.

These data streams are potentially huge in size and thus it is impossible to process many data mining techniques and approaches. Classification techniques fail to successfully process data streams because of two factors: their overwhelming volume and their distinctive feature known as concept drift. Concept drift is a term used to describe changes in the learned structure that occur over time. The occurance of concept drift leads to a drastic drop in classification accuracy. The recognition of concept drift in data streams has led to sliding-window approaches also different approaches to mining data streams with concept drift include instance selection methods, drift detection, ensemble classifiers, option trees and using Hoeffding boundaries to estimate classifier performance. This paper describes the various types of concept drifts that affect the data examples and discusses various approaches in order to handle concept drift scenarios. The aim of this paper is to review and compare single classifier and ensemble approaches to data stream mining respectively.


However, it seems that criminals find this type of currency extremely practical/attractive and are using it more and more. For instance, the take down of the underground criminal marketplace SilkRoad led to the seizure of 175/000 Bitcoins (valued $33 million at the time) by the FBI. In May 2021, the take down of Liberty Reserve, the oldest and largest digital currency service was proven to have benefited largely criminal activities by providing money laundering to an amount of 4/4 billon € ($6 billon).

This is an important property to keep in mind when dealing with block ciphers. We demonstrate this behavior with the following simple example.


It could be argued that the state-of-the-art in block cipher design is more advanced than stream ciphers. Currently it seems to be easier for scientists to design “secure” block ciphers than stream ciphers. Subsequent chapters deal in great detail with the two most popular and standardized block ciphers, DES and AES.

Migrate the host key

A second question is: should we change our thought process from money to currency or from currency to wealth? Think for a moment of your company determines it is financially stable or a resounding financial success. What are the financial metrics it uses? Are the formulas or algorithms calculating the worth correctly? There is high risk in not understanding the underlying calculations our accounting systems are using and that we are basing our financial future on. You do not need to know the programing or code, but yes the underlying principles as to how the results are computed. For example, that sale times selling price equals revenue, not profit. Risk managers do not need to be certified public accountants but they do need to bring it to the attention of the chief financial officer that this is a risk that needs to be mitigated—whether the financial software is custom or off the shelf or even, as some would say, heaven forbid, on mobile apps.


Examinations play a vital role in deciding the quality of students. Generating an effective question paper is a task of great importance for any educational institute. Conventionally question papers are developed manually. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based model is proposed for autonomous paper generation, using MATLAB ®. Comparative analysis with classical method is done and fuzzy model is found to be more reliable, fast and logical.

If we choose a new IV every time we encrypt, the CBC mode becomes a probabilistic encryption scheme. If we encrypt a string of blocks x1, xt once with a first IV and a second time with a different IV, the two resulting ciphertext sequences look completely unrelated to each other for an attacker. Note that we do not have to keep the IV secret.


Quantum attacks on public-key cryptosystems firefox

Identifying the target users, Designing of market strategy/plan, Building the marketing network (groups) & Statistical analysis of categories. Influentiality of target user has been discussed with real time instances. Categories have been found based on their influence by using clustering technique. Lastly, ended with statistical analysis that includes graphical representation of highly influenced users. Further this paper helps to extract emotional feelings of the user so that any related articles, posts or videos can be posted to that user.

In quantum (https://handworktime.ru/free/?key=7558) computing, such a technology is rising. Potential hardware that can execute Shor's algorithm to directly threaten commonly used public-key schemes (RSA, conventional Diffie-Hellman, and elliptic curve) may be far nearer to realization than we would expect. D-Wave corporation has promised to deliver an adiabatic quantum computer this year with 5,000 qubits; this machine is not capable of directly running Shor's algorithm, but if it were, TLS and SSH would be severely compromised. There is some urgency to correct our cryptosystems (https://handworktime.ru/free/?key=9035).